Solar Spectral Flux, Optical Depth, Water Vapor, and Ozone Measurements and Analyses in the ace-asia Spring 2001 Intensive Experiment icon

Solar Spectral Flux, Optical Depth, Water Vapor, and Ozone Measurements and Analyses in the ace-asia Spring 2001 Intensive Experiment



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A Proposal to the Office of Naval Research

800 North Quincy Street

Arlington, VA 22217-5660

Attn: Dr. Ronald J. Ferek, Ph 703-696-0518, ferekr@onr.navy.mil


for


Solar Spectral Flux, Optical Depth, Water Vapor, and Ozone Measurements and Analyses in the ACE-Asia Spring 2001 Intensive Experiment


Co-Principal Investigators:





Peter Pilewskie Date

Atmospheric Physics Branch

Earth Science Division

NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000

Telephone: 650-604-0746. Fax: 650-604-3625

ppilewskie@mail.arc.nasa.gov




Philip B. Russell Date

Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch

Earth Science Division

NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000

Telephone: 650-604-5404. Fax: 650-604-6779

prussell@mail.arc.nasa.gov




Co-Investigators:


Beat Schmid, Bay Area Environmental Research Institute (Tel. 650-604-5933, bschmid@mail.arc.nasa.gov)

Jens Redemann, Bay Area Environmental Research Institute (Tel. 650-604-6259, jredemann@mail.arc.nasa.gov)

John M. Livingston, SRI International (Tel. 650-604-3386, jlivingston@mail.arc.nasa.gov)


Research Period and Budget Requested from ONR:


Task 1 Task 2 Total

November 1, 2000 – October 31, 2001: $94.4K $60.0K $154.4K


Reviewed by:







Warren J. Gore, Chief Date

Atmospheric Physics Branch






R. Stephen Hipskind, Chief Date

Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch




Authorizing Official:

Estelle P. Condon, Chief Date

Earth Science Division

NASA Ames Research Center


^ TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ABSTRACT 1

1. BACKGROUND 1

1.1 ACE-Asia Goals, Overall Approach, and the Spring 2001 Intensive Experiment 1

1.2. Results From Previous Work 3

1.2.1 Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) Analysis and Results 3

1.2.2 Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS) Analysis and Results 5

1.2.3 Results from Combined SSFR and AATS Measurements and Analyses 6

^ 2. PROPOSED RESEARCH 7

2.1 Objectives 7

2.2. Proposed Tasks 7

2.2.1 ONR-Funded Task One: SSFR Measurements and Analyses 7

2.2.2 ONR-Funded Task Two: AATS-14 Measurements and Analyses 7

2.2.3 NASA-Funded Integrated Analyses 7

2.3. Schedule 8

2.4. References 8

3. BUDGET 9

^ 4. STAFFING, RESPONSIBILITIES, AND VITAE 9

ILLUSTRATIONS F1


ABSTRACT


We propose to provide measurements and analyses of solar spectral fluxes and direct beam transmissions in support of the ACE-Asia Spring 2001 Intensive Experiment. Spectral fluxes (300-1700 nm at 10 nm resolution) will be measured by a zenith and nadir viewing Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) on the CIRPAS Twin Otter. Simultaneously and on the same aircraft, direct beam transmissions will be measured in 14 narrow bands (354-1558 nm) by the 14-channel Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14). The AATS-measured beam transmissions will be analyzed to derive aerosol and thin-cloud optical depth at 13 wavelengths, plus column water vapor overburden and, when aerosol optical depths are small enough (<~0.02), ozone overburden. The data will be used to support the overall goals of ACE-Asia, with emphasis on determining the net solar radiative forcing of East Asian/West Pacific aerosols, quantifying the solar spectral radiative energy budget in the presence of elevated aerosol loading, supporting satellite algorithm validation, and providing tests of closure with in situ measurements.


1 BACKGROUND


1.1 ACE-Asia Goals, Overall Approach, and the Spring 2001 Intensive Experiment


The Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia) is the fourth in a series of aerosol characterization experiments organized by the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Program (IGAC). Each ACE is designed to integrate suborbital and satellite measurements and models so as to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosol particles (Huebert et al., 1999b). ACE-Asia focuses on aerosol outflow from Asia to the Pacific basin troposphere because (1) Asian anthropogenic emissions and mineral dust are very different from the environments of previous ACE experiments, and (2) Expected increases in Asian emissions have the potential to cause large changes in radiation budgets, cloud microphysics, and hydrological output over the coming decades.


The goals of ACE-Asia are to determine and understand the properties and controlling factors of the aerosol in the anthropogenically modified atmosphere of Eastern Asia and the Northwest Pacific and to assess their relevance for radiative forcing of climate (Huebert et al., 1999b). ACE-Asia consists of three focused components in the 2000-2004 timeframe:

  1. In-situ and column integrated measurements at a network of ground stations will quantify the chemical, physical and radiative properties of aerosols in the ACE-Asia study area and assess their spatial and temporal (seasonal and inter-annual) variability (2000-2004).

  2. An intensive experiment will be used to quantify the horizontal and vertical distributions of aerosol properties, the processes controlling their formation, evolution and fate, and the column integrated clear-sky radiative effect of the aerosol (March through May, 2001).

  3. ^ The effect of clouds on aerosol properties and the effect of aerosols on cloud properties (indirect aerosol effect) will be quantified in focused intensive experiments (Spring 2001 and Spring 2002 or 2003).


This proposal addresses measurements in the Spring 2001 Intensive Experiment (previously called the Survey and Evolution Component, AA-SEC). The experiment (Huebert et al., 2000) has three overall scientific objectives, with the greatest emphasis on the first two:


Objective 1. Determine the physical, chemical, and radiative properties of the major aerosol types in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region and investigate the relationships among these properties.


Objective 2. Quantify the interactions between aerosols and radiation in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region


Objective 3. Quantify the physical and chemical processes controlling the evolution of the major aerosol types and in particular of their physical, chemical, and radiative properties.


As stated by Huebert et al. (2000), ACE-Asia as a whole has a fourth objective, which will depend on information gathered in the 2001 Intensive Experiment (among other sources):


Objective 4. Develop procedures to extrapolate aerosol properties and processes from local to regional and global scales, and assess the regional direct and indirect radiative forcing by aerosols in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region.


Further information about ACE-Asia can be found on the Project Website (saga.pmel.noaa.gov/aceasia/) or from members of the ACE-Asia Executive Committee:


Barry J. Huebert, Lead Scientist, University of Hawaii, USA, huebert@soest.hawaii.edu

Timothy S. Bates, NOAA/PMEL, USA, bates@pmel.noaa.gov

Thomas Choularton, University of Manchester, UK, t.choularton@umist.ac.uk

John Gras, CSIRO, Australia, john.gras@dar.csiro.au

Kimitaka Kawamura, Hokkaido University, Japan, kawamura@soya.lowtem.hokudai.ac.jp

Young-Joon Kim, KJIST, Korea, yjkim@env.kjist.ac.krMingxing Wang, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing, China, wmx@lasgsgi4.iap.ac.cn


In the Spring 2001 Intensive Experiment flight plans and ship operations will be directed to sample regional aerosol features (e.g. dust layers, urban and industrial plumes) under different synoptic meteorological patterns and at various distances from shore. Quantifying aerosol direct radiative forcing will require the integration of multiple measurement and modeling approaches. Radiative transfer models, coupled with chemical transport models, will be used to partition the radiative effects of aerosols between the natural and anthropogenic components and thus attempt to quantify aerosol direct radiative forcing. These models must rely on accurate parameterizations of aerosol properties. Satellites will be used to assess the temporal and spatial variability in aerosol columnar extinction. These observations can be used to assess the direct radiative effect of the combined natural and anthropogenic aerosol. However, the algorithms used for these retrievals must again rely on accurate parameterizations of aerosol properties. In-situ measurements of aerosol chemical, physical, and radiative properties and radiative fluxes throughout the vertical column can be used to directly quantify the radiative effect of the combined natural and anthropogenic aerosol and provide the parameterizations needed for satellite retrievals and models. The combination of in-situ measurements, columnar extinction measurements (surface-based, air and space-borne radiometers), radiative flux measurements and models will produce an overdetermined data set that can be used to evaluate the combined uncertainty of the models and measurements used to assess the direct radiative forcing of aerosols in the ACE-Asia study area.


Huebert et al., (2000) describe a plan to address these questions using three US mobile platforms (the NCAR C-130, the CIRPAS Twin Otter, and a NOAA ship) plus 1-2 enhanced ground stations working in coordination with ships, aircraft, lidars, and surface sites from a variety of nations (e.g., Japan, Korea, China, and Taiwan). The operations base will be Iwakuni Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS), near Hiroshima in southern Japan. Efforts will be made to coordinate some flights with the NASA TRACE-P program, which will be focusing on photochemistry in Asian outflow at about the same time, using measurements on the NASA DC-8 and P-3.


As in previous ACEs, satellite data products will be used by ACE-Asia both in realtime to plan and direct flights and for post-campaign analyses. For example, ACE-Asia flights that study the plumes of desert dust emanating from Asia will be guided by satellite observations that identify locations of maximum dust concentrations and areas where concentration gradients can most easily be studied. In flights designed to study aerosol evolution, satellite observations of the decay of backscatter by the continental plume will be used to identify regions where removal mechanisms seem especially effective. As amplified in the following sections, our proposed research will contribute to the validation and refinement of satellite retrievals.


1.2 Results From Previous Work


1.2.1 Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) Analysis and Results

^

Cloud Remote Sensing



The SSFR is a newer version of a prototype spectroradiometer that was first designed to infer the thermodynamic phase of clouds (Pilewskie and Twomey, 1987; Pilewskie and Twomey, 1992). Using measurements of either spectral reflectance or spectral transmission (defined by the observer’s viewing angle; for reflectance, /2; for transmission, 0/2), cloud phase can be determined by the signal in the atmospheric window between 1.55 m and 1.75 m. Since ice is nearly four times more absorbing than liquid water at 1.65 m, ice spectra have lower amplitude signal in this band. The ice spectrum also shows a shift of the peak signal towards longer wavelength when compared to a water cloud spectrum, following the absorption spectra of bulk liquid water and ice.


The result of applying asymptotic formulae to derive relationships between measured transmission and the bulk absorption affords a simple yet powerful constraint on the composition of absorbing material. These relationships can be used not only to unambiguously discriminate between cloud phase, but also to reveal the presence of a heretofore “unknown” absorber. Our observations of near-infrared cloud transmission have substantiated the premise that liquid water and ice are the dominant absorbers in the near-infrared window bands. Similar relationships are being employed to develop methods of inferring cloud ice/liquid water content and enhanced water vapor path through the multiple scattering medium of thick clouds (Pilewskie and Twomey, 1996).

^

Clear Sky Solar Radiative Energy Budget



The first SSFR data to be extensively analyzed and compared to model derived spectra for cloud-free conditions were obtained during the NASA SUCCESS experiment in 1995. Comparisons between measurements and model calculations of the spectrally resolved downwelling irradiance at the ground showed that for cloud-free conditions there was agreement to within instrumental and model uncertainties of 5% (Pilewskie, et al., 1998). The greatest disagreement occurred in the 400 -700 nm band. The integrated irradiance over the band from 400 nm to 2200 nm agreed to within 3%. Roughly 85% of the difference between the modeled and measured integrated irradiance occurred in the 400 to 700 nm band. The level of agreement between measured and modeled spectra in the water vapor absorption bands was encouraging, considering that water vapor is the primary absorber in the atmosphere. However, we concluded that it would be necessary to compare similar spectral data over a broader range of atmospheric conditions to fully assess our ability to model solar spectral irradiance.


Data acquired during the 1997 Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (DOE ARM) Shortwave Intensive Operational Period (SWIOP) shows that a discrepancy exists between models and observations in the cloud free atmosphere and it is highly correlated with water vapor (Pilewskie et al., 2000). The difference between modeled and measured flux increases most rapidly in the two mid-visible bands between 442 nm and 778 nm and the trend becomes nearly flat in the near-infrared (see Figure 1). Over this entire spectral region the difference grows at a rate of approximately 9 Wm-2 per cm of water. Relative to the energy at the top of the atmosphere, the bias increases by about 1% per cm of water in the two bands between 442 and 625 nm and 625 and 778 nm, with smaller relative contributions in the other bands. The source of the discrepancy remains undetermined because of the complex dependencies of other variables on water vapor.

^

Principal Component Analysis



A formal approach to any remote sensing problem is to transform the original set of measured variables into a smaller set of mutually-orthogonal uncorrelated variables. For SSFR spectra, the measurement variables are irradiance (or radiance) values at many wavelengths. While several hundred measurements comprise a single spectrum, relatively few are independent: measurement of flux at one wavelength is sufficient to calculate flux in other regions of the spectrum given constituents of known absorption and scattering. The initial step is to determine the correlation between irradiance at different wavelengths which is then used to derive the principal components, linear combinations of the original irradiance values. The virtue of this procedure is to define the minimum number of parameters necessary to characterize atmospheric spectral irradiance, or the dimensionality of atmospheric variability. PCA can be applied to set limits on the number of parameters that can be inverted from a spectral data set.


Physically independent influences (in our application, different absorbers and scatterers: condensed water, oxygen, ozone, carbon dioxide, aerosols, etc.) do not in general produce independent orthogonal components in the measurement (spectral) domain. PCA produces orthogonal patterns, which of necessity are weighted combinations of the contributions of two or more independent influences. That difficulty faces PCA in general and has been discussed at some depth by Richman (1986), who describes so-called rotation schemes that affect a recombination of raw orthogonal patterns to produce patterns (non-orthogonal) that better separate effects of physically independent causes.


This was the general procedure followed by Rabbette and Pilewskie (2000) in the analysis of SSFR spectra from the ARM 1997 Fall Shortwave Intensive Operational Period (SWIOP). The input variable matrix used in that study constituted nearly 7000 spectra (between 360 and 1000 nm) which were acquired over a three-week period at the ARM CART site in north central Oklahoma. The time series of the first two rotated Principal Components (PCs) reveal strong similarities to the time series of cloud liquid water content (97% of the explained variance) and integrated column water vapor (2.5% of explained variance). Since the analyzed spectra were in the shortest wavelength region of the solar spectrum, variability associated with cloud water was due to scattering, not absorption.

^

The Solar Radiative Energy Budget in the Cloudy Atmosphere



The solar radiative energy budget of the cloudy atmosphere has been the focus of considerable attention due to several recent studies which suggested that our ability to estimate broadband radiative fluxes and, consequently, to infer atmospheric absorption, using detailed radiative transfer models is poor (Cess, et al., 1995; Pilewskie and Valero, 1995; Valero et al., 1998). The recently completed Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) was the second major DOE field campaign dedicated to measuring the absorption of solar radiation by clouds. Figure 2 is an example of SSFR spectra during ARESEII and is representative of the type of data we will obtain during the ACE-ASIA flight missions. During ARESEII the SSFR was integrated on the Sandia National Laboratory Twin Otter in nadir and zenith viewing ports. The blue curve is the nadir-viewing (upwelling) irradiance over north-central Oklahoma on 20 March 2000 at 1700 GMT. Spectral integration time is 100 ms. The red curve is the zenith-viewing (downwelling) irradiance, also at 1700 GMT, and the green spectrum is the difference between downwelling and upwelling irradiance, or the net flux. During ARESE II nearly 200,000 irradiance spectra were acquired over a variety of scenes and altitudes in the lower and middle troposphere.

^ 1.2.2 Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS) Analysis and Results


The Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometers (AATS-6 and AATS-14) have previously flown on a variety of aircraft to study a wide range of aerosol and trace gas phenomena. Among the AATS results most relevant to ACE-Asia are those obtained in the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2), where elevated layers of Sahara dust were studied over the eastern Atlantic Ocean (Russell and Heintzenberg, 2000). Figure 3 shows an example measured by AATS-14 on the Pelican aircraft in the Canary Islands (Schmid et al., 2000). The optical depth profiles in the left panel were smoothed and vertically differentiated to obtain the extinction profiles in the right panel. The extinction profiles clearly show the presence of three distinct layers: an elevated layer of Sahara dust, a moderately polluted marine boundary layer, and an intervening layer that is nearly aerosol-free. Note the marked difference in extinction wavelength-dependence in the two aerosol layers: a strong dependence in the boundary layer (extinction profiles separated in wavelength) and almost no dependence in the elevated dust layer (extinction profiles overlapping except at 1558 nm). This difference reflects the difference of aerosol size in the two layers, with accumulation-mode particles important in the polluted boundary layer and coarse-mode particles more important in the Sahara layer.


Figure 4 shows how the presence of elevated dust layers can affect the accuracy of optical depths retrieved from satellite radiance measurements. The scatter diagram in Figure 4a (Durkee et al., 2000) compares AVHRR-retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 630 and 860 nm with AOD measured in ACE-2 by a variety of sunphotometers on land, ship, and aircraft. Data points with AOD>0.25 are cases where an elevated layer of Sahara dust was present; those with AOD<0.25 had no Sahara dust. For all 23 cases shown the AVHRR standard error of estimate is 0.025 for 630 nm wavelength and 0.023 for 860 nm. Note that in the dust-containing cases (AOD>0.25), the AVHRR-retrieved AODs are biased low compared to sunphotometer optical depths (by amounts ranging from 0.01 to 0.08). In contrast, for the dust-free cases AVHRR-retrieved values are biased slightly high. Figure 4b compares AOD spectra for a case from Figure 4a where dust was present (this is also the case from Figure 3); Figure 4c is the analogous comparison for a dust-free case (Livingston et al., 2000; Schmid et al., 2000). These cases show clearly the change in bias of the AVHRR retrieved values between dust-free and dust-containing cases, especially at 860 nm. Possible reasons for this change include differences between the wavelength-dependent single scattering albedos and phase functions of the Sahara dust and those assumed in the AVHRR retrieval (Durkee et al., 2000), plus the height of the absorbing dust aerosols (e.g., Quijano et al., 2000). In ACE-Asia, sunphotometer underflights of aerosols in different conditions (e.g., marine aerosols with and without Asian dust aloft) could provide analogous tests of the validity of satellite products as a function of condition. Vertical profile flights by the sunphotometer aircraft or a coordinated aircraft could provide simultaneous in situ data on aerosol physicochemical properties, helping to complete the picture.


In addition to vertical profile flights, airborne sunphotometer measurements flown along horizontal transects near the land or ocean surface can provide aerosol optical depth spectra useful for validating products from simultaneous satellite overflights. This is illustrated in Figure 5, which shows a comparison of airborne sunphotometer (AATS-6), AVHRR, and ATSR-2 data acquired in TARFOX (Russell et al., 1999a) over the Atlantic Ocean when the UW C-131A flew across a gradient of aerosol optical depth between latitudes 37-39 N (Veefkind et al., 1999). The flight path was chosen using half-hourly GOES images to locate the aerosol gradient. Comparing Figures 5a and 5b shows that the ATSR-2 retrieval reproduces the sunphotometer-measured optical depth gradient better than the AVHRR retrieval. Comparing 3c and 3d shows how the ATSR-2 retrieval also matches the sunphotometer-determined Angstrom exponent better than AVHRR. In ACE-ASIA, GOES or other realtime satellite imagery could be used to design flight legs across the gradient from plume core to edge during a subsequent satellite overpass (by, e.g., EOS Terra carrying MODIS, MISR, and CERES). AATS optical depth spectra on legs flown near the surface would provide validation data for comparisons such as those in Figure 5.


Figure 6 shows other comparisons from TARFOX, when AATS-6 on the UW C-131A underflew the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) on the NASA ER-2 (Tanre et al., 1999). These comparisons focus on the wavelength dependence of optical depth and illustrate how the magnitude of optical depth affects the success of the MAS retrieval. Specifically, the good agreement in wavelength dependence and magnitude obtained when optical depth is relatively large (>0.2 for <1 m) degraded when optical depth decreased below ~0.05 (causing MAS-measured radiance from the aerosol to decrease relative to radiance from the ocean surface). Establishing such limits and uncertainties is a major reason for validation studies. In ACE-Asia they could be conducted for a variety of aerosol types and conditions, over different types of land surfaces (e.g., densely vs. sparsely vegetated), glint-free and glinting swaths of ocean, and on transects spanning land and ocean.


^ 1.2.3 Results from Combined SSFR and AATS Measurements and Analyses


In Summer 2000 the SSFR and the 6-channel AATS (AATS-6) flew together on the Navajo aircraft in the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE). The SSFR and AATS-6 operated very successfully, acquiring large data sets on the radiative effects of Saharan dust, marine aerosols, and clouds over the Caribbean Sea. Analyses of the PRIDE SSFR and AATS-6 data sets are currently in progress; early results will be presented at the PRIDE special session of the Fall 2000 AGU Meeting. This section shows some examples of these early results.

^

Vertical Profiles of Multiwavelength Optical Depth and Extinction for PRIDE Aerosols



Figure 11 shows an example of results from AATS-6 measurements acquired in PRIDE on 21 July 2000, when the Navajo flew a profile that extended from near the sea surface to ~5.7 km asl. The optical depth profiles in the left panel are derived from AATS-6 measurements of solar beam transmission. These optical depth profiles were smoothed and vertically differentiated to obtain the extinction profiles in the right panel. The extinction profiles clearly show the presence of a layer of increased aerosol extinction at altitudes ~2-4.6 km asl, above the marine boundary layer. Other measurements made simultaneously on the Navajo show that this elevated layer contained high concentrations of mineral dust. Trajectory analyses showed that the dust had been transported across the Atlantic from the Sahara Desert. Note that extinction in the elevated Sahara dust layer is nearly independent of wavelength over the range 380-1021 nm. This wavelength-independence reflects the importance of coarse-mode particles in the Sahara layer. Within the marine boundary layer the data suggest a change in wavelength dependence, especially at 1021 nm. However, this change is within the uncertainty of the measurements, and we do not consider it significant without further study.

^

Solar Radiative Forcing by Dust Aerosol



The Navajo flight on 15 July 2000 in PRIDE included a descent with seven horizontal legs of approximately five to ten minutes duration, several of which were in a classic Saharan air layer. Simultaneous SSFR and AATS-6 measurements of solar spectral flux and optical depth were made on each leg, providing an excellent opportunity to study the radiative forcing due to Saharan dust over the Caribbean. We computed average downwelling and upwelling spectral fluxes on each of the seven legs to determine the net spectral flux (downwelling minus upwelling) at each level. Results are shown in Figure 12. We determined from time series data and from simultaneous AATS-6 data (not shown here) that significant portions of some the legs were contaminated by overlying cirrus. However, little or no cirrus contamination was present in the data from legs three, four, and five, which were right in the heart of the dust layer. The difference in net flux between any two of these levels is the absorption (alternatively, flux divergence) of the intervening layer. Layer absorption spectra obtained this way are shown in Figure 13. Absorption by water vapor is significant in the near-infrared. However, there is a monotonic increase in absorption (with decreasing wavelength) at wavelengths less than 600 nm. This is consistent with the known optical properties of Saharan dust: the absorption peak in the near-ultraviolet is responsible for its reddish color.


The AATS-6 measurements (not shown here) gave mid-visible dust optical thickness (DOTmidvis) values of approximately 0.15 for each layer and 0.3 for the total dust layer. The integrated absorption from 300-600 nm is approximately 5 W m-2 for each layer, or 10 W m-2 for the total (DOTmidvis=0.3), so the measured absorption by dust aerosol is approximately 33 W m-2 per unit optical depth.


^ 2 PROPOSED RESEARCH


2.1 Objectives


The objectives of the proposed research are to:


  1. Improve understanding of dust, other aerosol, and water vapor effects on radiative transfer, radiation budgets and climate in the East Asian/West Pacific region, and

(2) Test and improve the ability of satellite remote sensors (such as MODIS, MISR, CERES, TOMS, AVHRR) to measure these constituents and their radiative effects.


^ 2.2 Proposed Tasks


2.2.1 ONR-Funded Task One: SSFR Measurements and Analyses


The NASA Ames Radiation group will deploy a Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) on the CIRPAS Twin Otter during the ACE-Asia intensive experiment in March-April, 2001. The SSFR has zenith and nadir viewing light collectors for measuring solar spectral upwelling and downwelling irradiance from 300 to 1700 nm at 10 nm resolution. This data will be used to determine the net solar radiative forcing of dust and other aerosols, to quantify the solar spectral radiative energy budget in the presence of elevated aerosol loading, and to support satellite algorithm validation.


The SSFR is calibrated for wavelength, absolute power, and angular response at the NASA Ames Research Center. Some of this work is done in conjunction with the Ames Airborne Sensors Facility which takes part in round robin calibration comparisons with NIST and the University of Arizona. The Airborne Sensors Facility is also responsible for calibrating flight simulation sensors, such as the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS), and the use of identical standards will allow us to trace SSFR calibrations to MAS.


We will meet all data archival schedules; we anticipate three levels of data release.


^ 2.2.2 ONR-Funded Task Two: AATS-14 Measurements and Analyses

For the funding requested in this proposal (Section 3) the NASA Ames Sunphotometer/Satellite group will perform the following subtasks: (a) Integrate the 14-channel Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) on the CIRPAS Twin Otter. (b) Calibrate AATS-14 before and after the Spring 2001 experiment. (c) Provide continuous realtime measurements of aerosol and thin cloud optical depth spectra and water vapor column contents during the Spring 2001 experiment flights. (d) Use these data in flight direction and planning.


^ 2.2.3 NASA-Funded Integrated Analyses


In addition to ONR funded Tasks One and Two, we plan to perform the following subtasks using NASA funding: (e) Compare AATS-14 results to those of the satellite sensors listed above (as, e.g., in Figures 4-6); in cases of disagreement, investigate causes and retrieval algorithm improvements. (f) For aircraft profiles derive profiles of aerosol extinction spectra and water vapor density by differentiating optical depth and column water vapor profiles (as exemplified by Figures 3 and 7). (g) Combine these data with those from the SSFR and conduct new analyses of aerosol radiative forcing sensitivity, single scattering albedo, and the solar spectral radiative energy budget (as exemplified by Figure 8). (h) Derive aerosol size distributions from optical depth and extinction spectra (as exemplified by Figure 9). (i) Combine data with in situ measurements (e.g., the Twin Otter measurements of size distribution, scattering, and/or absorption) to provide tests of closure and integrated assessments of aerosol and trace gas radiative effects. An example of such a closure test is shown in Figure 10 (Schmid et al., 2000). (j) When midvisible aerosol optical depths are sufficiently small (<~0.02, e.g., above major aerosol layers), derive ozone overburdens; compare these results to satellite-retrieved values and, if appropriate, assess their potential impact on tropospheric solar energy budgets and/or photodissociation rates. We will report results of the analyses in joint publications with collaborating investigators.


2.3 Schedule


1/01: Final pre-flight SSFR and AATS-14 calibration

2/01: Integration and test flights of SSFR and AATS-14 on CIRPAS Twin Otter

3-4/01: Field deployment

5/01: post-flight calibrations

11/01: first data release

3/02: second data release

5/02: final data release


2.4 References


Cess, R.D., et al., Absorption of solar radiation by the earth’s surface: Observations versus models. Science, 267, 496 (1995).

Durkee, P. A., Nielsen, K. E., Russell, P. B., Schmid, B., Livingston, J. M., Collins, D., Flagan, R. C., Seinfeld, H. H., Noone, K. J., Ostrom, E., Gassó, S., Hegg, D., Bates, T. S., Quinn, P. K., and Russell, L. M. this issue. Regional aerosol properties from satellite observation: ACE-1, TARFOX and ACE-2 results. Tellus B 52, 484-497, 2000.

Huebert, B., T. Bates, J. Seinfeld, and J. Merrill, ACE-Asia Survey and Evolution Component (AA-SEC) NSF Large Field Program Scientific Overview, omnibus proposal submitted to U.S. National Science Foundation, 22 July 1999a. Available at http://saga.pmel.noaa.gov/aceasia/si_nsf/index.html.

Huebert, B., et al., ACE-Asia Project Prospectus, 30 December 1999b. Available at http://saga.pmel.noaa.gov/aceasia/prospectus2000/.

Huebert, B., T. Bates, et al., ACE-Asia Spring 2001 Intensive Experiment Science and Implementation Plan, Draft, September 2000, available from the authors.

Livingston, J. M., Kapustin, V. N., Schmid, B., Russell, P. B., Quinn, P. K., Timothy, S. B., Philip, A. D., and Freudenthaler, V. this issue. Shipboard sunphotometer measurements of aerosol optical depth spectra and columnar water vapor during ACE-2. Tellus B 52, 594-619, 2000.

Pilewskie, P., M. Rabbette, R. Bergstrom, J. Marquez, B. Schmid, and P.B. Russell, The discrepancy between measured and modeled downwelling solar irradiance at the ground: Dependence on water vapor. ^ Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 137 (2000).

Pilewskie, P. and S. Twomey, Cloud properties derived from surface-based near-infrared spectral transmission. IRS '96: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, A. Deepak Publishing, Fairbanks, Alaska (1996).

Pilewskie, P. and F.P.J. Valero, Direct observation of excess solar absorption by clouds, ^ Science, 267, 1626 (1995).

Pilewskie, P., and S. Twomey, Optical remote sensing of ice in clouds. J. of Wea. Modif., 24, 80, (1992).

Pilewskie, P. and S. Twomey, Discrimination of ice from water in clouds by optical remote sensing. Atmos. Research, 21, 113 (1987).

Pilewskie, P., and S. Twomey, Cloud phase discrimination by reflectance measurements near 1.6 and 2.2 m. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 3419 (1987).

Quijano, A.L., I.N. Sokolik, and O.B. Toon, Influence of the aerosol vertical distribution on the retrievals of aerosol optical depth from satellite radiance measurements,Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 3457-3460, 2000.

Rabbette , M. and P. Pilewskie, Multivariate analysis of solar spectral irradiance measurements. J. Geophys. Res. In press (2000).

Richman, M. B., 1986: Rotation of principal components. J. Clim, 6, 293-335.

Reid, J., Preliminary Mission Plan for a Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE) for Summer 2000. Available from the author, SPAWARSYSCEN SAN DIEGO D883, 49170 Propagation Path, San Diego, CA 92152-7385, email: jreid@spawar.navy.mil, http://www.spawar.navy.mil

Russell, P. B., and J. Heintzenberg, An overview of the ACE-2 Clear Sky Column Closure Experiment (CLEARCOLUMN), Tellus B 52, 463-483, 2000.

Russell, P. B., P. V. Hobbs, and L. L. Stowe, Aerosol properties and radiative effects in the United States east coast haze plume: An overview of the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX), ^ J. Geophys. Res., 104, 2213-2222, 1999a.

Russell, P. B., J. M. Livingston, P. Hignett, S. Kinne, J. Wong, and P. V. Hobbs, Aerosol-induced radiative flux changes off the United States Mid-Atlantic coast: Comparison of values calculated from sunphotometer and in situ data with those measured by airborne pyranometer, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 2289-2307, 1999b.

Schmid, B., Livingston, J. M., Russell, P. B., Durkee, P. A., Collins, D. R., Flagan, R. C., Seinfeld, J. H., Gasso, S., Hegg, D. A., Ostrom, E., Noone, K. J., Welton, E. J., Voss, K., Gordon, H. R., Formenti, P., and Andreae, M. O.. Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements. Tellus B 52, 568-593, 2000.

Tanre, D., L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, S. Mattoo, P. V. Hobbs, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, and A. Smirnov, Retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and size distribution over ocean from the MODIS airborne simulator during TARFOX, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 2261-2278, 1999.

Valero, F.P.J., R.D. Cess, M. Zhang, S.K. Pope, A. Bucholtz, B. Bush, and J. Vitko, Jr., Absorption of solar radiation by the atmosphere: interpretations of collocated aircraft measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 29,917-29,927 (1997).

Veefkind, J. P., G. de Leeuw, P. A. Durkee, P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, and J. M. Livingston, Aerosol optical depth retrieval using ATSR-2 and AVHRR data during TARFOX, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 2253-2260, 1999.





^ 4. STAFFING, RESPONSIBILITIES, AND VITAE


Drs. Peter Pilewskie and Philip B. Russell will be Co-Principal Investigators. Dr. Pilewskie will be responsible for the SSFR measurements and analyses; Dr. Russell will be responsible for the AATS-14 measurements and analyses. Drs. Pilewskie and Russell will collaborate on analyses that combine SSFR and AATS-14 measurements, as well as on flight planning for such measurements. They will be responsible for the completion of their tasks within budget and schedule. Drs. Beat Schmid and Jens Redemann and Mr. John Livingston will participate in AATS-14 preparation, calibrations, airborne measurements, data analyses, and publications. Ames will furnish additional engineering and technical personnel necessary to maintain, operate, and repair the instrumentation before, during, and after the calibrations and field measurements.


(a) Peter Pilewskie

Abbreviated Curriculum Vitae


Education:

B.S., Meteorology, Pennsylvania State University, 1983

M.S., Atmospheric Science, University of Arizona, 1986

Ph.D., Atmospheric Science, University of Arizona, 1989


^ Professional Experience:

Radiation Group Leader, Atmospheric Physics Branch, NASA Ames Research Center, 1994-present

Research Scientist, Atmospheric Physics Branch, NASA Ames Research Center, 1989-1994

Research Assistant, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, University of Arizona, 1983-1989


^ Professional Activities:

Member, Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) II Science Team

Member, Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE), 1999-present

Member, Triana Science Team, 1998-present

Member, Global Aerosol Climatology Program (GACP), 1998-present

Member, Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Science Team, 1997-present

Member, International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC), Focus on Atmospheric Aerosols, Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing Activity, 1995-present

Member, First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Program (ISCCP) Regional Experiment, Phase III (FIRE III) Science Team, 1994-present
^

Science Team Leader, International Global Aerosol Program (IGAP), Radiative Effects of Aerosols, 1993



Professional Honors:

NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal, 1997

NASA Group Achievement Award, FIRE Phase II Science and Operations Team, 1997

NASA Ames Honor Award, Scientist, 1995


^ Selected Publications:

Pilewskie, P., M. Rabbette, R. Bergstrom, J. Marquez, B. Schmid, and P.B. Russell, The discrepancy between measured and modeled downwelling solar irradiance at the ground: Dependence on water vapor. Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 137(2000).

Rabbette , M. and P. Pilewskie, Multivariate analysis of solar spectral irradiance measurements. ^ J. Geophys. Res. In press (2000).

Curry, J.A., P.V. Hobbs, M.D. King, D.A. Randall, P. Minnis, G.A. Isaac, J.O. Pinto, T. Uttal, A. Bucholtz, D.G. Cripe, H. Gerber, C.W. Fairall, T.J. Garrett, J. Hudson, J.M. Intrieri, C. Jakob, T. Jensen, P. Lawson, D. Marcotte, L. Nguyen, P. Pilewskie, A. Rangno, D.C. Rogers, K.B. Strawbridge, F.P.J. Valero, A.G. Williams, and D. Wyliep, FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 81, 5 (2000).

Pilewskie, P., A.F.H. Goetz, D.A. Beal, R.W. Bergstrom, and P. Mariani, Observations of the spectral distribution of solar irradiance at the ground during SUCCESS, ^ Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1141 (1998).

Heymsfield, J.A., G.M. McFarquhar, W.D. Collins, J.A. Goldstein, F.P.J. Valero, W. Hart, and P. Pilewskie, Cloud properties leading to highly reflective tropical cirrus: interpretations from CEPEX, TOGA COARE, and Kwajalein, Marshall Islands, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 8805 (1998).

Valero, F.P.J., W. Collins , P. Pilewskie, A. Bucholtz, and P. Flatau, Direct observations of the super greenhouse effect over the equatorial Pacific, Science, 275, 1773 (1997).

Dong, X., T.P. Ackerman, E.E. Clothiaux, P. Pilewskie and Y. Han, Microphysical and Radiative Properties of Boundary Layer Stratiform Clouds Deduced from Ground-Based Measurements, ^ J. Geophy. Res., 102, 23829 (1997).

Pilewskie, P. and F.P.J. Valero, Response to: How much solar radiation do clouds absorb?, Science, 271, 1134 (1996).

Lubin, D., J.P. Chen, P. Pilewskie, V. Ramanathan, and F.P.J. Valero, Microphysical examination of excess cloud absorption in the tropical atmosphere, ^ J. Geophys. Res., 101, 16961 (1996).

Westphal, D. L., S. Kinne, P. Pilewskie, J. M. Alvarez, P. Minnis, D. F.Young, S. G. Benjamin, W. L. Eberhard, R. A. Kropfli, S. Y. Matrosov, J. B. Snider, T. A. Uttal, A. J. Heymsfield, G. G. Mace, S. H. Melfi, D. O'C. Starr, and J. J. Soden, Initialization and validation of a simulation of cirrus using FIRE-II data. J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 3397 (1996).

Collins, W.D., F.P.J. Valero, P. Flatau, D. Lubin, H. Grassl, P. Pilewskie, and J. Spinhirne, Radiative effects of convection in the tropical Pacific, ^ Journal of Climate, 101, 14999 (1996).

Clarke, A.D., J.N. Porter, F.P.J. Valero, and P. Pilewskie, Vertical profiles, aerosol microphysics and optical closure during ASTEX: measured and modeled column optical properties, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 4443 (1996)

Pilewskie, P. and F.P.J. Valero, Direct observation of excess solar absorption by clouds, Science, 267, 1626 (1995).

Sokolik I.N., F.P.J. Valero, and P. Pilewskie, Spatial and temporal variations of the radiative characteristics of the plume from the Kuwait oil fires, submitted to ^ Biomass burning and Global Climate Change, Levine J.S., Ed., MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (1995)

Valero, F.P.J., S. Platnick, S. Kinne, P. Pilewskie, and A. Bucholtz, Airborne brightness temperature measurements of the polar winter troposphere as part of the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Experiment II and the effect of brightness temperature variations on the diabatic heating in the lower stratosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 2575 (1993).

Pilewskie, P., F.P.J. Valero, Optical depths and haze particle sizes during AGASP III. ^ Atmos. Environment, 27A, 2895 (1993).

Russell, P.B., J.M. Livingston, E.G Dutton, R.F Pueschel, J.A. Reagan, T.E DeFoor, M.A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B.M. Herman, S.A. Kinne, and D.J. Hoffmann, Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data. J. Geophys. Res., 98, 22969 (1993).

Valero, F.P.J. and P. Pilewskie, Latitudinal survey of spectral optical depths of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud derived particle sizes, columnar mass loadings, and effects on planetary albedo, ^ Geophys. Res. Lett., 19, 163 (1992).

Pilewskie, P., F.P.J. Valero, Radiative effects of the smoke from the Kuwait oil fires. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 14541 (1992).

Pilewskie, P., and S. Twomey, Optical remote sensing of ice in clouds. J. of Wea. Modif., 24, 80 (1992).

Pilewskie, P. and S. Twomey, Discrimination of ice from water in clouds by optical remote sensing. ^ Atmos. Research, 21, 113 (1987).

Pilewskie, P., and S. Twomey, Cloud phase discrimination by reflectance measurements near 1.6 and 2.2 m. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 3419 (1987).

Reagan, J.A., P.A. Pilewskie, I.C. Scott-Fleming, and B.M. Herman, Extrapolation of earth-based solar irradiance measurements to exoatmospheric levels for broad-band and selected absorption-band observations.^ IEEE Trans. on Geosci. Remote Sensing, GE-25, 647 (1987).


(b) Philip B. Russell

Abbreviated Curriculum Vitae


B.A., Physics, Wesleyan University (1965, Magna cum Laude; Highest Honors). M.S. and Ph.D., Physics, Stanford University (1967 and 1971, Atomic Energy Commission Fellow). M.S., Management, Stanford University (1990, NASA Sloan Fellow).


Postdoctoral Appointee, National Center for Atmospheric Research (1971-72, at University of Chicago and NCAR). Physicist to Senior Physicist, Atmospheric Science Center, SRI International (1972-82). Chief, Atmospheric Experiments Branch (1982-89), Acting Chief, Earth System Science Division (1988-89), Chief, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch (1989-95), Research Scientist (1995-present), NASA Ames Research Center.


Currently, Member, Science Teams for NASA’s Earth Observing System Inter-Disciplinary Science (EOS-IDS), Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP) and the satellite sensors SAGE II and SAGE III.


Previously, NASA Ames Associate Fellow (1995-96, awarded for excellence in atmospheric research).


Previously, Co-coordinator for the CLEARCOLUMN component of the Second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Project. Coordinator for IGAC’s Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX).


Previously, Editor (1993, 1996) and Editor-in-Chief (1994-95), ^ Geophysical Research Letters; Chair, American Meteorological Society International Committee on Laser Atmospheric Studies (1979-82, Member, 1978-82). Member, National Research Council Committee on Army Basic Research (1979-81). Member, American Meteorological Society Committee on Radiation Energy (1979-81).


Previously, Project Scientist, Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) Project to develop the Perseus A Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA, 1992-94). Member, Science/Aeronautics Seam Team of NASA Ames Reorganization Team (1994). Member, Ad Hoc Committee on the NASA Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) Program (1993-4). Member, NASA Red Team on Remote Sensing and Environmental Monitoring of Planet Earth (1992-3). Leader, NASA Ames Earth Science Advanced Aircraft (ESAA) Team (1990-94). Member, National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) Committee on Natural Environment (1988-94).


NASA Exceptional Service Medal (1988, for managing Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Project). NASA Space Act Award (1989, for invention of Airborne Autotracking Sunphotometer). Member, Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi.


^ SELECTED PUBLICATIONS (from 89 peer-reviewed papers)


Russell, P. B., and J. Heintzenberg, An overview of the ACE-2 Clear Sky Column Closure Experiment (CLEARCOLUMN), Tellus B 52, 463-483, 2000.

Bergstrom, R. W., and P. B. Russell, Estimation of aerosol radiative effects over the mid-latitude North Atlantic region from satellite and in situ measurements. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 1731-1734, 1999.

Russell, P. B., P. V. Hobbs, and L. L. Stowe, Aerosol properties and radiative effects in the United States Mid-Atlantic haze plume: An overview of the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX), J. Geophys. Res., 104, 2213-2222, 1999.

Russell, P. B., et al., Aerosol-induced radiative flux changes off the United States Mid-Atlantic coast: Comparison of values calculated from sunphotometer and in situ data with those measured by airborne pyranometer, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 2289-2307, 1999.

Russell, P. B., S. Kinne and R. Bergstrom, Aerosol climate effects: Local radiative forcing and column closure experiments, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 9397-9407, 1997.

Russell, P. B., et al. Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol, derived from diverse measurements and analyses, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 18,745-18,763, 1996.

Russell, P.B., et al., Post-Pinatubo optical depth spectra vs. latitude and vortex structure: Airborne tracking sunphotometer measurements in AASE II, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 2571-2574, 1993.

Russell, P.B., et al, Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol: I. An optical model for data conversions, J. Atmos. Sci., 38, 1270-1294, 1981.


(c) Beat Schmid

Abbreviated Curriculum Vitae

^

Bay Area Environmental Research Institute


3430 Noriega Street

San Francisco, CA 94122

Education


M.S. (Lizentiat)

1991

Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern, Switzerland

Ph.D.

1995

Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern, Switzerland

Postdoctoral Fellowship

1995-97

Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern, Switzerland
^

Professional Experience


Bay Area Environmental Research Institute, San Francisco, CA (1997-Present)

-Senior Research Scientist

University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (Oct. 1995 -Jan. 1996)

-Visiting Scientist

University of Bern, Switzerland (1989-1997)

-Research Assistant (1989-1995)

-Postdoctoral Researcher (1995-1997)
^

Scientific Contributions


  • 7 years of leading studies in ground-based and airborne sun photometry: instrument design and calibration, development and validation of algorithms to retrieve aerosol optical depth and size distribution, H2O and O3.

  • Participate with the NASA Ames Airborne Sun photometers in ACE-2 (North Atlantic Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment, 1997, Tenerife). Extensive comparison of results (closure studies) with other techniques: lidar, optical particle counters, nephelometers, and satellites.

  • Participate with the NASA Ames Airborne Sun photometer in SAFARI-2000 (Southern African Regional Science Initiative).

  • Participate with the NASA Ames Airborne Sun photometers in the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program integrated fall 1997 and 2000 intensive observation periods (IOP) in Oklahoma. Appointed to lead sun photometer intercomparison. Extensive comparison of water vapor results with radiosondes, microwave radiometers, lidar, and Global Positioning System.

  • Test of candidate methods for SAGE 3 satellite ozone/aerosol separation using airborne sunphotometer data.

  • Application of NOAA/AVHRR satellite data to monitor vegetation growth in Switzerland
^

Scientific Societies/Committees


-American Geophysical Union

-American Meteorological Society

Publications


2000:

Schmid, B., J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, and M. O. Andreae, Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE 2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements, Tellus, B 52, 568-593, 2000.

Pilewskie P., M. Rabette, R. Bergstrom, J. Marquez, ^ B. Schmid, and P. B. Russell: The Discrepancy Between Measured and Modeled Downwelling Solar Irradiance at the Ground: Dependence on Water Vapor. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27(1),137-140, 2000.

Ferrare, R., S. Ismail, E. Browell, V. Brackett, M. Clayton, S. Kooi, S. H. Melfi, D. Whiteman, G. Schwemmer, K. Evans, P. Russell, J. Livingston, ^ B. Schmid, B. Holben, L. Remer, A. Smirnov, P. Hobbs. Comparisons of aerosol optical properties and water vapor among ground and airborne lidars and sun photometers during TARFOX. J. Geophys. Res., 105(D8), 9917-9933, 2000.

Redemann, J., R. P. Turco, K. N. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, ^ B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A Ferrare, E. V. Browell, Retrieving the Vertical Structure of the Effective Aerosol Complex Index of Refraction From a Combination of Aerosol In Situ and Remote Sensing Measurements During TARFOX. J. Geophys. Res., 105(D8), 9949-9970, 2000.

Collins, D. R., H. H. Jonsson, J. H. Seinfeld, R.C. Flagan, S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, B. Schmid, P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, L. M. Russell, and J. P. Putaud, In situ aerosol size distributions and clear column radiative closure during ACE-2. Tellus, B 52, 498-525, 2000.

Durkee, P. A., K. E. Nielsen, P. J. Smith, P. B. Russell, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, B. N. Holben, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, K. J. Noone, E. Öström, S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, L. M. Russell, T. S. Bates, and P. K. Quinn. Regional aerosol properties from satellite observations: ACE-1, TARFOX and ACE-2 results. Tellus, B 52, 484-497, 2000.

Gassó, S., D. A. Hegg, K. J. Noone, D. S. Covert, B. Schmid, P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, P. A. Durkee, and H. H. Jonsson, Influence of humidity on the aerosol scattering coefficient and its effect on the upwelling radiance during ACE2. Tellus, B 52, 546-567, 2000.

Livingston, J. M., V. Kapustin, B. Schmid, P. B. Russell, P. K. Quinn, T. S. Bates, P. A. Durkee, P. J. Smith, V. Freudenthaler, D. S. Covert, S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, V. Vitale, and C. Tomasi, Shipboard sunphotometer measurements of aerosol optical depth spectra and columnar water vapor during ACE 2 and comparison to selected land, ship, aircraft, and satellite measurements. Tellus, B 52, 594-619, 2000.

Welton, E. J., K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, H. Maring, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben,^ B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, and O. Dubovik, Ground-based lidar measurements of aerosols during ACE-2: lidar description, results, and comparisons with other ground-based and airborne measurements. Tellus, B 52, 636-651, 2000.

Ingold, T., B. Schmid, C. Mätzler, P. Demoulin, and N. Kämpfer, Modeled and Empirical Approaches for Retrieving Columnar Water Vapor from Solar Transmittance Measurements in the 0.72, 0.82 and 0.94-m Absorption Bands. J. Geophys. Res., 105(D19), 24327-24343, 2000.

1999:

Schmid B., J. Michalsky, R. Halthore, M. Beauharnois, L. Harrison, J. Livingston, P. Russell, B. Holben, T. Eck, and A. Smirnov, Comparison of Aerosol Optical Depth from Four Solar Radiometers During the Fall 1997 ARM Intensive Observation Period, Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 26, No. 17, 2725-2728, 1999.

1998:

Schmid, B., P.R. Spyak, S.F. Biggar, Ch. Wehrli, J. Sekler, T. Ingold, C. Mätzler, and N. Kämpfer, “Evaluation of the applicability of solar and lamp radiometric calibrations of a precision Sun photometer operating between 300 and 1025 nm.” Applied Optics, Vol. 37, No. 18, 3923-3941, 1998.

[5 2-page peer-reviewed extended abstracts describing TARFOX and ACE-2 results in J. Aerosol Sci., Vol. 29, Suppl. 1 and 2.]

1997:

Schmid, B., C. Mätzler, A. Heimo, and N. Kämpfer, Retrieval of Optical Depth and Size Distribution of Tropospheric and Stratospheric Aerosols by Means of Sun Photometry. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 35, No. 1, 172-182, 1997.

Two other relevant papers:

Schmid, B., K. J. Thome, P. Demoulin, R. Peter, C. Mätzler, and J. Sekler, Comparison of Modeled and Empirical Approaches for Retrieving Columnar Water Vapor from Solar Transmittance Measurements in the 0.94 Micron Region. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 101, No. D5, 9345-9358, 1996.

Schmid, B., and C. Wehrli, Comparison of Sun Photometer Calibration by Langley Technique and Standard Lamp. Applied Optics, Vol. 34, No. 21, 4500-4512, 1995.


(d) Jens Redemann

Abbreviated Curriculum Vitae


Research Scientist, Bay Area Environmental Research Institute

MS-245, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000

Phone: (650) 604-6259 Fax: (650) 604-3625, email: jredemann@mail.arc.nasa.gov
^

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE


Research Scientist

April 1999 to present

Bay Area Environmental Research Institute, San Francisco.

^ Research Assistant

May 1995 to March 1999

University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Atmospheric Sciences.

Lecturer

Jan. 1999 to March 1999

University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Atmospheric Sciences.

Tutor

1997 to 1998

Ivy West Educational Services, Marina Del Rey, CA.

^ Research Assistant

June 1994 to April 1995

Free University of Berlin, Germany. Department of Physics.

EDUCATION


^ Ph.D. in Atmospheric Sciences.

1999

University of California, Los Angeles. Specialization: atmospheric physics and chemistry.

^ M.S. in Atmospheric Sciences.

1997

University of California, Los Angeles. Specialization: atmospheric physics and chemistry.

M.S. in Physics.

1995

Free University of Berlin, Germany. Specialization in experimental physics and mathematics.
^

RELEVANT RESEARCH EXPERIENCE


  • Developed inversion algorithms (C and IDL) and data analysis tools for aircraft-based lidar and sunphotometer measurements during field experiments (PEM, TARFOX).

  • Compared remotely sensed data to aerosol in situ measurements and devised techniques to retrieve the vertical structure of aerosol optical properties and radiative effects.

  • Involved in the development of a multi-wavelength, ground-based lidar system at the Free University of Berlin, Germany.

  • Provided solutions to scientific and numerical problems pertaining to aerosol physics and performed validation measurements relevant to Clean Room Technology for the computer chip industry.

  • Specialized course work in atmospheric sciences, geophysical fluid dynamics, cloud physics, radiative transfer and remote sensing.

HONORS


Invited Speaker at the Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists (ACCESS V).

June 1999


Outstanding Student Paper Award, American Geophysical Union - fall meeting.

1998

NASA Global Change Research Fellowship Awards.

1996-1998

UCLA Neiburger Award for excellence in the teaching of the atmospheric sciences.

1997

ORGANIZATIONS


American Association for Aerosol Research, American Geophysical Union, Co-president of the UCLA - Atmospheric Sciences Graduate Student Group.
^

RELEVANT PUBLICATIONS


2000:

Redemann, J., R.P. Turco, K.N. Liou, P.B. Russell, R.W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J.M. Livingston, P.V. Hobbs, S. Ismail, E.V. Browell. Retrieving the Vertical Structure of the Effective Aerosol Complex Index of Refraction From Aerosol In Situ and Remote Sensing Methods During TARFOX, J. Geophys. Res., 9949-9970, 2000..

Redemann, J., R.P. Turco, K.N. Liou, P.B. Russell, R.W.Bergstrom, P.V. Hobbs, E.V. Browell. Case Studies of the Vertical Structure of the Aerosol Radiative Forcing During TARFOX, J. Geophys. Res., 9971-9979, 2000.

1999:

Redemann, J., P.B. Russell, P. Hamill. Measurements and Modeling of Aerosol Absorption and Single Scattering Albedo at Ambient Relative Humidity, Presented at the AGU 1999 Fall Meeting, Dec. 13-17, San Francisco, CA, 1999.

1998:

Redemann, J., R.P. Turco, R.F. Pueschel, M.A. Fenn, E.V. Browell and W.B. Grant. A Multi-Instrument Approach for Characterizing the Vertical Structure of Aerosol Properties: Case Studies in the Pacific Basin Troposphere, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 23,287 - 23,298, 1998.

Redemann, J., R.P. Turco, R.F. Pueschel, E.V. Browell, W.B. Grant. Combining Data From Lidar and In Situ Instruments to Characterize the Vertical Structure of Aerosol Optical Properties, Presented at the Nineteenth International Laser Radar Conference, Annapolis, MD, July 6-10, 1998, NASA/CP-1998-207671/PT1, pp.95-99, 1998.

Before 1997:

Redemann, J., R.P. Turco, R.F. Pueschel, E.V. Browell, W.B. Grant. Comparison of Aerosol Measurements by Lidar and In Situ Methods in the Pacific Basin Troposphere, in ‘Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar’, A. Ansmann, R.Neuber, P.Rairoux, U.Wandinger (eds.), pp.55-58, Springer, Berlin, 1996.

Pueschel, R.F.; D.A. Allen, C. Black, S. Faisant, G.V. Ferry, S.D. Howard, J.M. Livingston, J. Redemann, C.E. Sorensen, S. Verma, Condensed Water in Tropical Cyclone “Oliver”, 8 February 1993, Atmospheric Research, 38, pp.297-313, 1995.


(e) John Livingston

Abbreviated Curriculum Vitae


Senior Research Meteorologist, Applied Physical Sciences Laboratory,

SRI International, Menlo Park, CA 94025

^ Specialized Professional Competence

Atmospheric physics and meteorology; atmospheric radiometry; computer simulation of atmospheric remote sensing systems; numerical analysis and inversion of in-situ and remotely sensed atmospheric data


Representative Research Assignments at SRI (Since 1978)

Acquisition and analysis of ground-based, airborne, and shipboard sunphotometer measurements

Validation of satellite particulate extinction measurements (SAM II, SAGE I, and SAGE II), and corresponding studies of the global distribution of stratospheric aerosols

Analysis of in situ measurements of stratospheric and tropospheric aerosols

Acquisition, modeling and analysis of Differential Absorption Lidar measurements of tropospheric ozone

Simulation of passive sensor radiance measurements to infer range to an absorbing gas

Experimental study of aerosol effects on solar radiation using remote sensors

Error analysis and simulation of lidar aerosol measurements

Analysis of lidar propagation through fog, military smoke, and dust clouds

Evaluation of the lidar opacity method for enforcement of stationary source emission standards

Weather forecasting for large-scale air pollution field study

Testing and evaluation of an offshore coastal dispersion computer model

Application of objective wind field and trajectory models to meteorological measurements

^ Professional Experience

Research Meteorologist to Senior Research Meteorologist, SRI International (1978-present)

Research assistant, University of Arizona Institute of Atmospheric Physics (1974-1977)

NASA Kennedy Space Center (1975-1976): participant in thunderstorm electrification studies

^ Academic Background

University of Notre Dame Year-in-Japan Program (1971-1972), Sophia University, Tokyo, Japan

B.S. summa cum laude in earth sciences (1974), University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN

M.S. in atmospheric sciences (1977), University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ

M.B.A. with highest honors (1992), Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA

Honors

NASA Ames Research Center Contractor of the Year (1997), NASA Certificate of Recognition (1992) for co-authored technical paper, NASA Group Achievement Award (1989) for Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment

^ Professional Associations

American Geophysical Union


PUBLICATIONS

2000:

Collins, D. R., H. H. Jonsson, J. H. Seinfeld, R.C. Flagan, S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, B. Schmid, P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, L. M. Russell, and J. P. Putaud, In situ aerosol size distributions and clear column radiative closure during ACE-2. Tellus, B 52, 498-525, 2000.

Durkee, P. A., K. E. Nielsen, P. J. Smith, P. B. Russell, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, B. N. Holben, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, K. J. Noone, E. Öström, S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, L. M. Russell, T. S. Bates, and P. K. Quinn. Regional aerosol properties from satellite observations: ACE-1, TARFOX and ACE-2 results. Tellus, B 52, 484-497, 2000.

Ferrare, R., S. Ismail, E. Browell, V. Brackett, M. Clayton, S. Kooi, S. H. Melfi, D. Whiteman, G. Schwemmer, K. Evans, P. Russell, J. Livingston, B. Schmid, B. Holben, L. Remer, A. Smirnov, P. Hobbs. Comparisons of aerosol optical properties and water vapor among ground and airborne lidars and sun photometers during TARFOX. J. Geophys. Res., 105(D8), 9917-9933, 2000.

Ferrare, R., S. Ismail, E. Browell, V. Brackett, S. Kooi, M. Clayton, P. V. Hobbs, S. Hartley, J. P. Veefkind, P. Russell, J. Livingston, D. Tanre, and P. Hignett. Comparisons of LASE, aircraft, and satellite measurements of aerosol optical properties and water vapor during TARFOX, J. Geophys. Res., 105(D8), 9935-9947, 2000.

Flamant, C., J. Pelon, P. Chazette, V. Trouillet, P. K. Quinn, R. Frouin, D. Bruneau, J. F. Leon, T. S. Bates, J. Johnson, and J. Livingston. Airborne lidar measurements of aerosol spatial distribution and optical properties over the Atlantic Ocean during a European pollution outbreak of ACE-2. Tellus, B 52, 662-677, 2000.

Gassó, S., D. A. Hegg, K. J. Noone, D. S. Covert, B. Schmid, P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, P. A. Durkee, and H. H. Jonsson, Influence of humidity on the aerosol scattering coefficient and its effect on the upwelling radiance during ACE2. Tellus, B 52, 546-567, 2000.

Hartley, W. S., P. V. Hobbs, J. L. Ross, P. B. Russell and J. M. Livingston, Properties of aerosols aloft relevant to direct radiative forcing off the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States, J. Geophys. Res., 105(D8), 9859-9885, 2000.

Livingston, J. M., V. N. Kapustin, B. Schmid, P. B. Russell, P. K. Quinn, T. S. Bates, P. A. Durkee, P. J. Smith, V. Freudenthaler, M. Wiegner, D. S. Covert, S. Gassó, D. Hegg, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, V. Vitale and C. Tomasi, Shipboard sunphotometer measurements of aerosol optical depth spectra and columnar water vapor during ACE-2 and comparison with selected land, ship, aircraft, and satellite measurements. Tellus, B 52, 594-619, 2000.

Redemann, J., R. P. Turco, K. N. Liou, P. B. Russell, R. W. Bergstrom, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. S. Hartley, S. Ismail, R. A Ferrare, E. V. Browell, Retrieving the Vertical Structure of the Effective Aerosol Complex Index of Refraction From a Combination of Aerosol In Situ and Remote Sensing Measurements During TARFOX. J. Geophys. Res., 105(D8), 9949-9970, 2000.

Schmid, B., J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, and M. O. Andreae, Clear sky closure Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements. Tellus B, B 52, 568-593, 2000.

Welton, E. J., K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, H. Maring, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, and O. Dubovik, Ground-based lidar measurements of aerosols during ACE-2: lidar description, results, and comparisons with other ground-based and airborne measurements. Tellus, B 52, 636-651, 2000.

1999:

Russell, P. B., J. M. Livingston, P. Hignett, S. Kinne, J. Wong, and P. V. Hobbs, Aerosol-induced radiative flux changes off the United States Mid-Atlantic coast: Comparison of values calculated from sunphotometer and in situ data with those measured by airborne pyranometer, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 2289-2307, 1999.

Tanre, D., L. A. Remer, Y. J. Kaufman, S. Mattoo, P. V. Hobbs, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, and A. Smirnov, Retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and size distribution over ocean from the MODIS airborne simulator during TARFOX, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 2261-2278, 1999.

Veefkind, J. P., G. de Leeuw, P. A. Durkee, P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, and J. M. Livingston, Aerosol optical depth retrieval using ATSR-2 and AVHRR data during TARFOX, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 2253-2260, 1999.

Schmid, B., J. Michalsky, R. Halthore, M. Beauharnois, L. Harrison, J. Livingston, P.. Russell, B. Holben, T. Eck, and A. Smirnov, Comparison of aerosol optical depth from four solar radiometers during the Fall 1997 ARM Intensive Observation Period, Geophys. Res. Lett., 104, 2261-2278, 1999.

1998:

[6 2-page peer-reviewed extended abstracts in J. Aerosol. Sci. describing TARFOX and ACE-2 results.]

1997:

Hegg, D. A., J. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, T. Novakov, and P. B. Russell, Chemical Apportionment of Aerosol Column Optical Depth Off the Mid-Atlantic Coast of the United States. J. Geophys. Res. , 102 , 25,293-25,303, 1997.

^ Five Other Relevant Papers:

Livingston, J.M., and P. B. Russell, Retrieval of aerosol size distribution moments from multiwavelength particulate extinction measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 94, 8425-8433, 1989.

Pueschel, R.F., J. M. Livingston, G. V. Ferry, and T. E. DeFelice, Aerosol abundances and optical characteristics in the Pacific basin free troposphere. Atmos. Envir., 28, 951-960, 1993.

Pueschel, R.F., J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, and S. Verma, Physical and optical prop­erties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 12,915-12,922, 1994.

Russell, P. B., J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, and R. W. Bergstrom, Global to Microscale Evolution of the Pinatubo Volcanic Aerosol, Derived from Diverse Measurements and Analyses. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 18,745-18,763, 1996.

Russell, P.B., J.M. Livingston, and E.E. Uthe, Aerosol-Induced Albedo Change: Measurement and Modeling of an Incident. J. Atmos. Sci., 36, 1587-1608, 1979.





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