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Documents Relating to Guthi Endowments in the Janakpur Region

^ Appointment of Mahant in Simardehi Asthan

(Shrawan Badi 13, 1861 (9/329)

From King Girban,

To Buddhirama Das, disciple of Dharmadas Vaishnav.

We hereby appoint you as Mahant of the Simardehi Asthan. Perform the customary religious functions at the Asthan with the income obtained from its Birta lands. Use the surplus to provide free food (Sadavarta to mendicants, pilgrims, etc.). (After your death), your disciple shall succeed you. Wish victory to us, and bless us.

^ Land Grant to Gosain Bitthaldas

Magh Badi 6, 1933) (9/908-09)

From King Surendra,

To Mahant Narayan Das, disciple of Gosain Bitthaldas of the Ratnasagar Asthan.

You had submitted a petition to us through Prime Minister Ranoddip Singh, requesting that since the royal order issued on the name of your preceptor, Gosain Bitthaldas, on Jestha Badi 7, 1891 had been lost, a new one be issued. The old order had read as follows:-

We grant twelve bighas of Dhanahar lands at Mujeliya in Kodari, Mahottari district, for performing Sadavarta functions. Use the income from these lands to provide food to guests and wayfarers. Wish victory to us, and appropriate the surplus income. Jestha Badi 7, 1891.

We hereby issue a fresh order reconfirming this grant.



^ Appointment of Mahant in Ramachandra Asthan, Mahottari

(Bhadra 19, 1962 (September 4, 1905). (1/354-55)

From (King Prithvi Narayan Shah Dev),

To Mahant Ishwara Giri.

The King of Makwanpur had granted lands as Kush Birta Bitalal, remitting all taxes, including those payable to the Crown (Raja-Anka), to the temple (Asthan) of Sri Ramachandra at Janakpur in Kodari, Mahotarri district.

On Falgun Sudi 1, 1967 (Vikrama), (Kng Girban) had issued a copper-plate inscription in favor of Mahant Ambar Giri reconfirming the grant as Kush Birta Bitalab in the same manner as it had been reconfirmed by (King Prithvi Narayan Shah had King Rana Bahadur Shah).

On Marga Sudi 9, 1890 (Vikrama), a royal order had been issued in the name of Ranaksh Giri as follows: ''Your preceptor (Guru), had designated you as his successor to the position of Mahant (in the Sri Ramachandra Asthan). Accordingly, we confirm your appointment as Mahant.''

Later, (the position of Mahant) was obtained by Mahant Rajeshwar Giri, a disciple of Mahant Basanta Giri. However, Mahant Rajeshwara Giri was convicted of murder, and Bishweshwari Giri was appointed as his successor.

It has now been proved that Bishweshwara Giri lodged a false complaint, alleging that (the property of the Asthan) had been looted. Since he had committed such an evil act even while occupying the position of a Mahant, he was dismissed.

With effect from the year 1960 (Vikrama), you have been appointed Mahant of Sri Ramachandra Asthan in Janakpur, on condition that designate a disciple as your successor only after reporting the matter to the government.



^ Appointment of Mahant in Matihani Asthan

Falgun 22, 1962 (March 6, 1906). (1/374-75)

From (King Prithvi Narayan Shah Dev),

To Mahant Lakhan Narayan Das.

Ramasharan Das had been functioning as Mahant of the Matihani Asthan. However, he was convicted of murder, and sentenced to imprisonment for life.

You have now submitted a petition for appointment as Mahant of the Matihani Asthan, claiming that you are a disciple of Mahant Devadas.

We therefore sanction your appointment as Mahant of the Matihani Asthan, succeeding Ramasharan Das.

^ Hostal in Mahottari

On Poush 29, 1968 (January 13, 1912), King Tribhuwan made a Guthi endowment for a hostel in Mahottari accommodating 54 Brahmans. Lands were endowed at Khesraha in Mahottari district to yield an income of Rs 4,150 yearly in India currency to finance this hostel. (1/108).

^ Income and Expenditure of the Bhola Asthan Guthi in Mahottari

Baisakh 28, 2010 (May 11, 1953). (3/53-55)

(a) Cash Income and Expenditure (In Indian Rupees)

Income Rs/annas Expenditure Rs /annas

Income from lands Tax on 40½ bighas

held by the Asthan 3166 of Jirayat lands 410/5

Daily religious

ceremonies 112/8

Doles, etc. 388/2

Ceremonial functions

and feasts 382/7



Other expenses 285/7

Royalty paid to

Mahottari Guthi

Mal Office 1528/5

Remuneration of

Mahant 58/13

Rs 3166/- Rs 3166/-

(b) ^ In-kind Income and Expenditur (In maunds)

Income Expenditure

Paddy, Potato, Lentils, etc. 521 In-kind expenditures

on religious functions 468

Exepenses on reclamation

of Jirayat lands 41

Allowance to Mahant 12

521 maunds 521 maunds



^ Poor Houses in the Tarai

According to an order issued on Ashadh 28, 1969 (July 12, 1912 A.D.), the government of Nepal sanctioned the establishment of poor-houses near district headquarters in Morang, Hanomannagar, Birganj, Bethari, Taulihawa and Banke. Provision was made to accommodate 27 orphans, old persons, and disabled persons at these poor-houses. However, people belonging to untouchable castes were not eligible. Arrangements were made to endow Guthi lands fetching an income of Rs 2,000 in Indian currency to meet the expenses of each of these poor-houses.X

^ District-administration Regulations

Extract from an order sent from Kathmandu to the Baitado Jhulaghat Gounda Office on Marga Badi 3, 1949 Vikrama: ''Assistants in district military headquarter offices shall be appointed not by the chief officer, but by the government, on 3-year terms. No government servant shall keep at his residence persons who have been appointed in the districts, except the King and the Prime Minister…. No (government officer) shall enroll his slaves and bandsmen (as government employees) and draw emoluments in their names.'' (57/26-29).



XRegmi Research Collections, Vol. 1, PP. 87-88.

(S. B. Maharjan).

Regmi Research (Private) Ltd,

Kathmandu: February 1, 1975

Regmi Research Series

Year 7, No. 2,

Edited By

Mahesh C. Regmi.




1. The Reign of Dambar Shah … 41

2. Selected Documents of Shrawan-Aswin

1887 Vikrama … 45

3. More Administrative Offices of the

Rana Period … 59


Regmi Research (Private) Ltd,

Lazimpat, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Compiled by Regmi Research (Private) Ltd for private study and research. Not meant for public sale of display.


^ The Reign of Dambar Shah1


Dinesh Raj Pant.


According to the Gorkha Vamshavali, one day, King Dambar Shah began to think, ''Gook sons spread the fame of their ancestors. Mediocre sons maintain the fame of their ancestors, whereas had once destroys it. I have become frail in body. It is said that the boon which the Goddess has granted will not benefit me. A fell, therefore, that I shall not live long. Now it is not possible for me to perform any act of valor. I can only maintain that had been done by my father, and propitiate the goods.'' Dambar Shah therefore began to spend more time in religious performances.2

This shows that Dambar Shah was a religious by Pratal Malla in 1705 Vikrama at the Krishna temple in front of the Hanumandhoka palace in Kathmandu, King Pratap mall destroyed the sturdy elephant of King Damber Shah, and occupied the fort of King Siddhinarasimha Malla.3

This shows that Dambar Shah had elephants in his army, and that he had sent troops to assist King Siddhinarasimha Malla of Patan.

Contemporary evidence gives us an estimate of Dambar shah's character which is quite contrary to that conveyed by the ^ Gorkha Vamshavali

This means that we cannot arrive at the truth by solely relying on the Vamshavali for our understanding of history.

According to Daniel Wright, who worked as doctor at the British Residency on Kathmandu during the rule of Prime Minister Jang Bahadur, Dambar Shah (1555 Shanka, 1633 A.D.) reigned nine years, while Krishna Shah became King in 1564 Shaka.4 Wright was also said that Dambar Shah reigned nine years, and died in 1899 Vikrama, or 1642 A.D.5



According to the ^ Bhasha Vamshavali, written by Buddhiman Singh, Dambar Shah, Ram Shah's Son, became King in 1535 Shanka, or 1590 Vikrama, and reigned nine years, and that his son, Krishna Shah, ascended the throne in 1564 Shaka, or 1699 Vikrama.

Both Wright and Bhuddhiman singh thus state that Dambar Shah became king in 1690 Vikrama after the death of Ram Shah, and that he died in 1966 Vikrama. Let us now see how far this view in correct.

According to an inscription installed by Ram Shah at the Rameshwara temple at Pokharithek in Gorkha, he built a monastery on Sunday, Ashadh Dashami in the month of Shrawan 1558 Shaka, or 1693 Vikrama.6

This shows that Ram Shah was still reigning on Shrawan 18, 1693 Vikrama. Wright and Buddhiman Singh are therefore wrong in stating that Dambar Shah ascended the throne in 1690 Vikrama.

The colophon of a copy of the Shivashastra, a part of the Kedarakhanda in the Skanda-purana, prepared in 1699 Vikrama, [………..] Dambar Shah as King for the first time.7 The date mentioned in the colophon corresponds to Kartik 27, 1699 Vikrama.

The records of Tiwari, a priest (Panda) at Devaprayag, shows that Dambar Shah was King of Gorkha in 1701 Vikrama.8

According to a document in the possession of Bhawani Prasad, King Dambar had made a land grant on Jestha Sudi 7, 1708 Vikrama, or Jestha 18, 1708.9

This proves that Dambar Shah was King on Jestha 18, 1708 Vikrama. Wright and Buddhiman Singh are therefore wrong in stating that Krishna Shah succeeded Dambar Shah in 1699 Vikrama.

Clear references to the reign of Dambar Shah from 1699 to 1708 Vikrama are thus available. Ram Shah is proved to have still been reigning in 1693 Vikrama; hence Dambar Shah could not have become King before that year. Dambar Shah thus became King of Gorkha some time between 1693 and 1699 Vikrama. Krishna Shah is proved to have been King in 1716 Vikrama. Accordingly, Dambar Shah must have died some time between 1708 and 1716 Vikrama.



All this shows that Dambar Shah could not have reigned before 1963 and after 1716 Vikrama. On the basis of available evidence, his regnal years are 1699 to 1708 Vikrama.

Baburam Acharya and Surya Bikram Gnyawali had made an attempt to calculate the correct dates of the reign of the Kings of Gorkha, without depending on Wright and Buddhiman Singh alone. According to Baburam Acharya, Ram Shah reigned from 1528 to 1558 Shaka, or from 1606 tp 1636 A.D.,10 and Dambar Shah from 1636 to 1642 A.D.11

According to Surya Bikram Gnyawali, the dates are as follows:-

^ Shaka A.D. Total reign

Ram Shah 1528-58 1606-36 30 years

Dambar Shah 1558-67 1636-45 9 ''

Evidence is available, however, that Chhatra Shah was reigning in 1666 Vikrama,13 and Dambar Shah until 1708 Vikrama. The dates given by both Baburam Acharya and Surya Bikrama Gnyawali are therefore not trustworthy.

(Note are given on page 44)




1. Dinesh Raj Pant, ''Dambar Shahko Rajykalama Ek Vichar'' (A vies on the date of Dambar Shah's reign). Purnima Year 8, No. 3, Marga 2031 (November-December 1974). PP. 177-83.

2. Naya Raj Pant, et. al., Shri 5 Prithvinarayan Shahko Upadesh (Teachings of King Prithvi Narayan Shah). P. 593.

3. Ibid, PP. 594-95.

4. Daniel Wright, History of Nepal, P. 279.

5. Ibid, P. 290.

6. Naya Raj Pant, op. cit., PP. 588-89.

7. Babukrishna Sharma. Rasthtriyabhilekhalayasthahasta likhita prachinapustakanam Brihat Suchiparam (Comprehensive catalog of encient manuscripts at the National Archives). Part 8, P. 301.

8. Purnima, 27, P. 162.

9. Mohan Prasad Khanal. Madhyakalin Abhilekha (Medieval Inscriptions), P. 26.

10. Baburam Acharya, Shri 5 Badamaharajadhiraj Prithvinarayan Shahko Samkshipta Jiwani (A brief biography o King Prithvi Narayan Shah), Part 2, preface.

11. Ibid, P. 12.

12. Surya Bikram Gnyawali, ''Shahvamshaka Kehi Rajaharuka Rajyakalka Vishayama Vichar.'' (Thoughts on the regnal years of some Shah Kings). Prachin Nepal (Ancient Nepal), 9, P. 35.

13, Kailash, Year 1, No. 1, P. 77.



Selected Documents of Shrawan-Aswin 1887 Vikrama


Payments of Salaries to Physicians

(Shrawan Badi 30, 1887) (44/42-43).

Harilal Jha was ordered to pay Rs 350 each to three physicians, Shavananda, Bhawani, and Keshe, as their salaries for the year 1887, with revenue collected from Bhadgaun.

^ Allowances to Jogis

(Shrawan Badi 30, 1887) (44/43).

Gobind Bhacha and Dhanarajbir were ordered to disburse Rs 96 and 11 annas to Jogis and Pirs for their expenses during the Chaturmasa (four-month period ending Kartik Sudi 11), Rs 3½ to potters for earthenware, and Rs 9 for materials required for religious ceremonies, with the Pota tax revenues collected in Kathmandu.

Orders were issued on the same date to Purushottam and Hiralal Jha sanctioning Rs 172 and 13 annas from the revenue collection in Patan town. (44/47-48), and Bhadgaun town (44/48) for the same purpose.

^ Reconfirmation of Birta Lands of Shrikanta Padhya

(Shrawan Badi 30, 1887) (44-44-47).

Petition Submitted by Shrikanta Padhya: My father, Harinanda Padhya, had assisted the governemtn in conquering the Kirat region. In appreciation of this service, King Prithvi Narayan Shah had reconfirmed the Kush Birta lands granted to him by the King of Makwanpur. Subsequently, some of these lands were acquitted for the Naraha fort, in exchange for which lands were granted in Khalisa, Saptari district as Kush Birta Bitalab. During the 1871 (Vikrama) Nepal-Britihs war, rents on these lands were collected by the army. Later, these lands were confiscated and assigned as Jagir to the army. These lands were restored to me in 1875 Vikrama. I have now incurred debts amounting to Rs 5,000. The lands have been subdivided by my brothers, whereas I am personally liable for these debts.



^ Royal Order:- The lands shall not be subdivided for six years. The income shall then be used to repay the debts. None of your brothers shall have any claim to these lands until these debts paid off. Thereafter, only the income shall be subdivided, not the lands.

Kut-Thek Land Grant In Kaski

(Shrawan Badi 30, 1887) (44/47).

580 muris of rice lands, held as Jagir by the Srinath Kampu in Arghau, Kaski district, were granted to Dhanabir Charti on Kut-Thek tenure for a total payment of Rs 210 and 6 annas every year. The breakdown was as follows: Amount previously paid as Kut-Thek: Rs 181 and 6 annas; amount of Kut-Thek now increased Rs 14 and 8½ annas; and Ghiukhane levy; Rs 14 and 7¼ annas. The order added, ''Pay Chardam Theki and other levies at the customary rates to the landlord (Talsing). Provide him with loans when demanded.''

^ Land Exchange

(Shrawan Badi 30, 1887) (44/49).

Khajanchi Udaya Giri, of Indrachok in Kathmandu, had bought 2¼ ropanis of land from Manabir. He exchange ¼ ropani of this plot with 1 ropani of rice lands onwed by Ngaku Sim Jyapu of Tangal Tol under Suna Birta tenure. The cost of the land thus exchanged was estimated at Rs 135, on which the government collected nine annas as Baksauni fee.

(The Khanjanchi had similarly exchanged three ropanis with Suna Birta lands of Taudhik Tuising Udas of Kel Tol) (44/50).

Land Transactions

(Shrawan Badi 30, 1887) (44/49-50)

1. Jagannath Jaisi of Gokarna sold six ropanis of rice lands to Kharidar Lilanath Pande of Marutol in Kathmandu for Rs 200.

2. Dasharath Jaisi Pokhrel and Murali Jaisi Pokhrel of Pasidal in Deopatan sold ten ropanis of rice lands to Kharidar Lilanath Pande for Rs 300.



3. Ranasur Pandit of Budanilakantha purchased 12½ ropanis of rice lands from Jagathir and his brothers of Bhimadeo Tol in Gokarna for Rs 925, which he had offered to the temple of Pashupatinath.

Guthi Endowment for Narayan Temple

(Shrawan Badi 30, 1887) (44/51)

a Narayana temple at Makhan Tol in Kathmandu had collapsed. The Guthiyar could not be located. The site was therefore granted to Bakhtwar Singh of Makhan Tol to build shops, and perform religious functions at the temple with the rents.

^ Exemption from Jhara Obligations

(Shrawan Badi 3, 1887) (44/52)

Newars residing inside the walled village of Nuwakot submitted the following petition: ''We had been granted exemption from Jhara obligation for work other than in the maintenance of channels irrigating Sira lands. But these days we are not left with spare time even during four months (duringthe monsoon) bacuase of the pressure of Jhara obligation.'' The government then reconfirmed the exemption from Jhara obligations for work other than on Sera lands.

^ Labor Obligations of Kumhales

(Shrawan Badi 3, 1887) (44/52-53)

The Kumhales of Battar (in Nuwakot) submitted the following petition: ''We have customarily been providing Thaple Hulaki Porterage Services. But these days money-lenders have taken possession of our Kipat lands. How then can we continuing providing Thaple Hulaki services?'' The government issued the following order: ''Provide Thaple Hulaki services as usual, and continue to work at the Dukhantar orchard. Any person who does not provide Thaple Hulaki services shall be envicted by the headman (Mijhar), and replaced under another. Those persons who provide Thaple Hulaki services under royal orders shall not be obliged to work elsewhere. Ma\oney-lenders shall not take possesson of the lands of Kumhales, or take overf their children uder bondage. Money-lenders shall accept repayment of the loan, or interest thereon, if offered by the debtor. People whe evade their obligation to work at the Dukhantar orchard shall be strongly punished.



^ Dismissal of Khawases

(Shrawan Sudi 5, 1887) (44-34).

The mouja of Marakipaliya in the Basantapur Parganna of Bara district, which had been assigned to Khawases, was resumed and taxed on Thekbandi basis. The proceeds were utilized to pay salaries ot 27 peons at the rat of Rs 25 every year. The peons were employed to transport bags of coins, and visit Patna and Banaras for purchasing goods. These functions were previously performed by the Khawases.

^ Marital Customs of Khas Community

(Shrawan Sudi 6, 1887) (44/54-55)

This royal order was addressed by the Tangadhari and liquor drinking (Pakalaa-Khanya) Khasas of Darma, Jahari, Baphi, Gotan, Athbis, and Panchthapala. ''Since the time ot your feudatory King, you have been following the custom of cross-cousin marriages. During the time when Rudravir Shahi was Subba of Salyan, this custom had been banned. This year, the ban was lifted in the case of the liquor drinking Khas Jimidars of Salyan. You have not petitioned that the ban should be lifted on a permanent basis. We therefore decree that henceforth Tagadhari Khasas should not follow the custom of cross-cousin marriage, but that liquor-drinking Khasas may do so.''

^ Supply of Charcoal

(Shrawan Sudi 8, 1887) (44/55)

Three villages in the Dulikhel area, and one village in the Bisankhu area, had been granted exemption from the supply of charcoal to the government munition factory in consideration of the services that they rendered to the local Amali. The exemption has been withdrawn.

^ Chhap Land Grant

(Shrawan Sudi 10, 1887) (44/57)

Twelve ropanis of land in Kirtipur, Thankot, and Deopatan were granted as Chhap to Bali Thapa, subject to the payment of taxes to the Chaprasi (Company).



^ Purchase of Supplies

(Shrawan Sudi 14, 1887) (44/58-59)

Subba Prayag Datta Jaisi of Morang was ordered to disburse Rs 2231 and two annas for Pashmina fabrics and other supplies purchased by the Tosakhana.

Supplie for Harisiddhi Festival

(Shrawan Sudi 15, 1887) (44/59)

Local functionaries in the rural areas of Kathmandu Valley were ordered to supply materials according to custom for the twelve-year Harisiddhi dance festival.

Another order was issued on the same date directing the Amalidar of Harisiddhi to select boys for the festival.

^ Thek Revenue in Jahari

(Shrawan Sudi 15, 1887) (44/59-60)

Raja Dip Narayan Shah was appointed Jummawal to collect revenue (including Mahsual tax on rice lands) on Thek basis at Kalagaun in the Jahari area amounting to Rs 1194.

Water Supply for Gunpowder Factory

(Bahdar Badi 2, 1887) (44/59-62)

Royal order to the inhabitants of Patan town, and the villages of Sunaguthi, Thecho, Chapagaun, Bulu and Pyangaun: ''Construct two channels, each for cubits deep and three cubits wide, for the supply of the new gunpowder factory that has been constructed at Pilchoktar. Two Naikes and twenty-two caretakers (Dhalwa) are hereby appointed to maintain in the repair these Channels. If their labor is insufficient, others too shall provide labor. Each Birta and Rakam peasant who cultivates five ropanis shall pay one pathi of grains through the Naike. The two Naikes and twenty-two caretakers are hereby granted exemption from Jhara obligations.''



^ Appointment of Chaudhari

(Bhadra Badi 3, 1887) (44/62-63)

Gauri Chaudhari and Bali Chaudhari were appointed Chaudhari for specified areas in the Parganna of Jhapa, comprising the district of Morang, replacing Shadiram. The position [varied] emoluments in cash. An annual fee (Khatami Salami) of Patna Rs 100 was payable to the government.

Another order, issued in the name of Gauri Chaudhari and Bali Chaudhari on the same date, reads as follows: ''Shadiram Chaudhari had fled to India; hence you have been appointed to succeed him. levied previously collected from the mouja, and the proceeds of the Singarhat fine, have been included in the contract for the collection of revenue from the mouja. The proceeds of Grama-Kharcha levies too have been included in the contract. Accordingly, Rs 500 has been prescribed as the salary (Khangi) of the Chaudhari, Rs 100 of the Kanugoge, and Rs 150 of the Thikedar, Mokaddam, Sairdar, etc. Obtain this amount from the Amil every year.'' (44/63-64).

^ Land Reclamation in Palhi

(Bhadra Badi 4, 1887) (44/65-66)

Maniratna had submitted a petition offering to reclaim waste lands within specified boundaries in the Baghaura tappa of Palhi district, in the Parganna of Binayakpur, in case the following concessions were granted: (1) The Mahati of the newlt settled villages should be granted security of tenure. (2) The settlers should be exempted from forced-labor (Beth, Begar) obligations. In case these conditions were fulfilled, he offered to procure settlers from India. The offer was accepted, on condtion that Maniratna paid Rs 51 every year to the Amil of Palhi to long as the newly-reclaimed lands remained cultivated, after the intial tax-exemption period (which was not specified) expired. He was permitted to appropriate all taxes and levies collected from the settlers, including judicial fines and escheat property.



^ Jhara Revenue

(Bhadra Badi 5, 1887) (44/66-67)

Receipt for Jhara revenue collected in the areas situated east of the Arun river and west of the Mechi river for the year 1886 Vikrama, amounting to Rs 8645¾, and Rs 13 due as arrears of 1885, making a total amount of Rs 8662¾. The amount was deposited with the Tosakhana.

^ Construction of Office Buildings

(Bhadra Badi 12, 1887) (44/67)

Royal order to Captain Birabhadra Kunwar, ''The Kachahari (district handquarters office) building of Saptari-Mahotarri is located near the border. It has a roof of Thatch. Since many people, from both inside and outside, have to visit this office, he hereby order that brick buildings with tile roofs be constructed to accommodate it. The barracks for the army shall also be constructed similarly. Employ both local and foreign artisans and mechanis for this purpose.''

^ Purchase of Male Buffaloes

(Bhadra Badi 13, 1887) (44/67-68)

Roya order to the Amali of Sirmras (Dolakha): ''We are herewith sending Rs […] to purchase two male buffaloes (to the slaoughtered) for religious functions during the Dashain festival. Deliver these buffaloes to the Itachapli (office) on Aswin Sudi 2, 1887)

^ Punishment for Sexual Offenses (1)

(Bhadra Badi 13, 1887) (44/68-70)

Royal order to Bichari Radhakrishna Gatame of Majhkhand, Prescribing punishment for the following offenses as follows:-

(1) Bhakti Padhya Khanal of Choprak (Gorkha), enticed Gaura Brahmani, wife of Narorram Padhya, to go abroad along with him. they spent a night in a hut on the banks of the Daraundi river, where Bhakti Padhya committed sexual intercourse with her, on Falgun 10, 1885. His share of the ancestral property shall therefore be confiscated. Gaura Brahmani shall be degraded from her caste.



(2) On Ashadh 3, 1884, Hadya Thapa committed sexual intercourse with Chhali Thapa, related to him as a sister-in-law (or daughter-in-law) within eight generations, while she was looking after the maize-field of the Khas widow of Khahali Thapa. The case shall be disposed of according to Both Niti (customary) and Samriti (official) (rites of expiation).

(3) On Baisakh 15, 1864, Darabir Thapa Puwar Khas of Tarapu committed sexual intercourse with the wife of Damu Brahman, while she had gone to the well at night fetch water. He then escaped. A statement shall be recovered from the woman then to the effect that she will be able to obtain to confession from him when he is traced, and his share of the ancestral property shall be confiscated. The woman shall be degraded from her caste.

(4) Ganga Ghimire of Pustung (Lamjung) committed sexual intercourse with Bishweshwari Brahmani, wife of his ritual brother (Mit), Basanta Mishra, for two years from Marga 1873. He kept the matter secret, and thus involved the Brahman in commensal relations with her. His share of the ancestral property shall be confiscated and he shall be degraded from his caste and banished.

(5) During the last week of Magh 1874, Dale Bhandari of Tarapu had sexual intercousrse with the same Bishweshwari Brahmani. When her brother came to know of the matter, Dale Bhandari paid him as bride of Rs 3½ and asked him to keep silent. Dale Bhandari thus involved the Brahman in commensal relations with the woman. He shall therefore be punished severely.

(6) Without knowledge of the sexual relations between Dale Bhandari and Bishwashara Brahmani, Muktya Katuwal and Ramadev Bhandari of Chhoprak committed sexual intercourse with her, knowing her caste status full well, and thereby involved the Brahman in commensal relations with her. They shall therefore be punished severely.


(Bhadra Badi 13, 1887) (44/74)

Royal order to Tenzing Gyalpu Tsewang Rejyen Lama of the Phulung Ghyang, ''Your great grand-father, Kamar Genzen Lama, had been assigned the four ghyangs of Syapruk, Bharkes, Dhunches, and Yashi as his Jajamani. The royal order of assignment has been destroyed by fire; hence we issue this order reconfirming your Jajamani.''



^ Reconfirmation of Land Grant

(Bhadra Badi 13, 1887) (44/75)

The Dholma-Ghyang in Belkot, and 90 muris of rice lands belonging to it, had been granted on a tax-free (Sarba-Kara-Akara) basis to Pirdhai Lama. The order was destroyed by fire, and new order was therefore issed in favor of his great-grandson Dehya Lama.

^ Guthi Endowment in Chitlang

(Bhadra Badi 13, 1887)

''The (Malla) King of Nepal had endowed 37 ropanis of rice-land as Guthi in Chitlang to finance the supply of food to mendicants, pilgrims, etc. (Sadavarta). After that territory same under our sway, we confirmed this endowment, and increased the land grant to 67 ropanis. Since the endowment is not being managed properly, we hereby appoint Bakhat Giri maange it. Supply one mana of grains to each person with the produce of these lands.''

[Disbu-semant of Salaries]

(Bhadra Badi 13, 1887) (44/76)

Sardar Jahar Singh Baniya was ordered to disburse Rs 300 as salary to Devarishi Padhya, and Rs 100 to two peons, who had been posted in Patna, with the conctract revenues of Bara, Parsa and Rautahat for the year 1887.

^ Supply of Hides and Skins

(Bhadra Badi 13, 1887) (44/76-77)

This order was addressed to all classes of people ''in the region situated west of Sanga-Sindhu, and east of the Marshyangda river, excluding Makwanpur, Hariharpur, Chitaun, and Belod, where revenue is collected under royal order by the Bhairung Paltan and the Gurubux Company, and including the new villages established by the Batukdal Company.'' In these areas, each family of Bhotes, hunting communities, andcommunties whose members used to flesh of death cattle as food (Sino-Khane), was ordered



to supply one hide or skin of buffalo, tiger, bear or deer, and pay two annas every year, Each Sarki famali was ordered tok pay four annas, The Sri Mohar Paltan sent to collect those impocitions, have the proceeds transkported through Jhara labor, and and them over to the munitions factory.

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