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Management of Guthi Endowment

(Kartik Badi 8, 1887) (44/120)

Pujya Rokaya was appointed priest of the Sri Mehadeva temple at Gamchal in Pyuthan.He was permitted to use income from the Guthi lands of the temple to perform religious ceremonies there and appropriate the surpkus income for his personol use.

^ Gharbari Land Grant

(Kartik Badi 8, 1887) (44/120).

In 1883 Vikrama, Rupanarain Bisht had reclaimed four ropanis of waste lands situated on the border between Thimi and Patan.These lands were given to him as a homesite (Gharbari), on payment of Pota tax at the rete of four annas por ropani. Eight annas were payable on two ropanis to Thimi, and the same amount to Patan.

^ Management of Garden in Pyuthan

(Kartik Badi 8 1887) (44/120-21)

(1) Manikarna Thapa was appointed Chitaidar (manager) of the Dewandere garden in Pyuthan, with 171 muris of rice-kands as Jagir.

(2) Order to Mukhiya Alai Khatri of Upall-Rasapur village, in Pyuthan district; ''All households in these villages which are under the obligation to provide Jhara labor services, should work at the Dewandera gardens. So long as this work is not completed, they need not provide Jhara labor services elsewhere

(To Be Continued)



^ King Rana Bahadur ShahX


Baburam Acharya.


In May 1794, Rana Bahadur Shah established a new Bharadari with the amin of taking over full powers from Bahadur Shah. At that time, any one who was appointed as Chautara in the Bhandari war required to function as an assistant to the Bharadari was required to function as an assiatant to the king. For this reason, the post of Chaurara was reqarded as very high and important.There was many candidates for this post to be filled up by Rana Bahadur Shah. Among them were Balabhadra Shah, Bibur Shah, Sher Bahadur Shahi,and Bam Shah,Balabhadra Shah claimed that he was qualified for the post,because he belonged to a superior caste. Bidur Shahi and Shahi and Sher Bahadur Shahi said that being the brothers of the King,even though illegitimate, they were more deserving then anybody else.Finally, Rana Bahadur Shah appointed Bidur Shahi and Shar Bahadur Shahi as joint Chautaras. At the same time, he appointed Balabhadra Shah and Bam Shah also as Chautaras, with responsibility to look after affairs in areas outside Kathmandu and in Kamaun respectively. Tribhuwan Khawas and Narasimha Gurung were appointed Kajis.

Two old Chhetri ministers, Abhiman Simha Basnyat and Damodar Pande, were retained. The practice of appointing a Gurung and a Newar as ministers was disconied. The new Bharadari functioned well in the first year.The Raja of Garhwal sent a minister to Kathmandu to attend the celebrations held to mark the King's take-over of the administration. He complained that the tribute of Rs 9,000 imposed on Garhwal was too high.Rana Bahadur Shah then reduced the amount to Rs 3, 000, and presented both the Raja of Garhwal and his visiting minister with gifts.


xBaburam Acharya, ^ Nepalko Samkshipta Vrittanta (A Concise Account of Nepal), Kathmandu: Pramod Shamsher and Nir Bikram ''Pyasi'', 2022 (1966 A.D.). Chapter 18, PP, 102-09.


During the same year, a woman named Kantiwati had come from Mithila on pilgrimage to the temple of Pashupati Nath. On the advice of Bidur Shahi and Sher Bahadur Shahi, Kantawati insisted that she would never remarry. Rajarajeshwari, the eldest queen of Rana Bahadur Shah, and Subarnaprabha, the were queen, were jealous of each other. After having given birth to a daughter, queen Rajarajeshwari had become imcapable to bearing more children. On the other hand Queen Subarnaprabha had two sons. She wanted one of her sons to be proclaimed as heir to the throne. This was why she wanted to stop Rana Bahadur Shah from marring Kantawati. But Queen Rajarajeshwari was in favor of Kantabati being married to Rana Bahadur shah, because she did not want to see Subarnaprabha's son proclaimed as heir. She preffered Kantawati's son to Subarnaprabha's as successor to Rana Bahadur Shah. King Nagabam Malla of Doti also had married a Brahman widow named Bhanumati, and proclaimed the son begotten by her as his successor. The descedents of Bhanumati's sen had since been ruling Doti. The news of Nagabam Malla's marriage with a Brahman widow had spread to Kathmandu. Kantiwati consented to marry Rana Bahadur Shah only after he had vowed to proclaim the sen to be begotten by her as his heir. They were therefafter married in Gorkha.

After Rana Bahadur Shah returned to Kathmandu on the conlusion of the wedding ceremony in Gorkha, a conflict developed between him and Bahadur Shah. One reason for that conflict was the occupation of Bahadur Shah's rooms inside the palace by Bidur Shahi and Sher Bahadur Shahi. Bahadur Shah had therefore been compelled to live in a rest-house built by him at Pashupati for the accommodation of pilgrims. Another reason for the conflict was that Bahadur Shah had written a letter requesting the Amben of Lhasa for permission to visit the Emperor of China.The Amban informed Rana Bahadur Shah of the receipt of that letter. Till then, Rana Bahadur Shah had not said a word. But when the Emperor of China died, and was suceceed by his sonBahadur Shah again wrote aetter to the new Emperor. The Emperor then awarded amedal called ''Hung'' to Bahadur Shah. TheAmban of Lhasa did not oppose the awardbut he seid that RanaBahadur Shah should be consulted. Accoruinglythe Amban wrote a letter to Rana Bahadur Shah.The latter did not send any written reply to the Amban, but despatchod Kaji Sarbajit Pande to Lhasa to make oral reprosentations to the Amban and hand over to him a note conraining imaginary charge against Bahadur Shah. Hardly had Kaji Sarbajit Pande



reached Lhasa than Rana Bahadur Shah arrested Bahadur Shah.For there months, Bahadur Shah was imprisoned at a fort located on the banks of the Bishnumati,which nowaccommodates the Paropakar orphanage.The fort had been originally built by Malla Kings,and later used by the Gorkhalis, sometimes as a quest-house, and sometimes as a jail. One night, Bahadur Shah was secretly murdered, and next morning, the body was cremated at Aryaghat, thereby creating the impression that he haddied a natural death. In this manner, Bahadur Shah met with a tragic death. In is not know what happened to his wife.

Kantiwati gave birth to Girban Yuddha Bikram Shah. His Birtha made all happy, specially his mother and the eldest queen. He was immediately proclaimed as Crown Prince, and throughout the year there was a festival atmosphere.

King Rana Bahadur Shah had a fair complexion, and his face was always cheerful. He had a sweet voice, and he knew how to play the Sitar. But he was lean, and his health was not good. Because of his poor health, he did not ride on horse-back, and usually maoved about man's back. His hobby was tending birds and animals. There ware once a large animal farm exactly at the place which now accommodates the Nepal Bank bulding. Various lands of birds and animals including horses, cows, deer, sheep, goats, buffalous, boarsm ducks, hen etc. were kept there. Rana Bahadur Shah was very fond of making these animals fight each other. He was particulary interested in bull-fights.

Girban Yuddha Bikram's first year after his birth was spent happily. But when he was just two years of age, his mother, Kantawati, developed symptoms of tuberculosis. This gave rise to concern and grief in the royal palace. The King was very grief-stricken. Several Bhardars started making efforts to take advantage of this situatioin. Kirtiman Simha Basnyat, son of Kahar Simha Basnyat, was one of such persons. At the time of the war with China, he occupied the post of Kaji. But he was dismissed soon after the war. Having contracted tuberculos, Queen Kantiwati was naturally worried over her son's future. She was not sure whether Girvana Yuddha Bikrama would ever become King. Since the state of King Rana Bahadur Shah's mind too was not satisfactory, she apprehended that her son might get involved in same unfortunate development. In the meantime, Kirtiman Simha Basnyat began to incite Queen Kantiwati. He told her that it was possible to enthrone the Crown Prince at once. The eldest queen, Rajarajeshwari, also



began to insist that Girban Yuddha Bikram be proclaimed King at once. She was well aware that she might forfeit her position as the seniormost queen in the event of Subarna Prabha's son becoming King. Her selfish interest therefore lay in the inthronement of Girban Yuddha Bikram. No competent physician came forward to treat the queen, because everywhere believed at that time that a tuberculosis patient could survive for not more that one thousand days. Finally, Kirtiman Simha persuaded a royal physician named, who resided at Deopatan, to attend to the sick queen. He was told that he would be given a hand some reward if he could cure the queen's ailment.

The physician, a simple-minded person, expressed the opinion that the queen could not be cured of tuberculosis unless something which could bring her religious, merit was done. He suggested that a rest-house should be built at Deopatan for pilgrims since the existing rest-house there, which was established by Bahadur Shah, to small. The King promptly brought a plot of cultivated land at Bhadgaun and set up a Guthi endowment for miainaning a rest-house with its income. The rest-houses will stands there. In a copper inscription issued in the connection, only Kirtiman Simha's name is mentioned as a witness to this act. On the advice of Milham, Rana Bahadur Shah also built a resisdence for Kantiwati near the physician's own residence, since it was necessary to built such a sanatorium in a forest area.

The physician then advised both the King and the queen to wear saffron robes, saying it was essesstial for them to practice abstinence. At this stage, Kirtiman Simh requested as the King to renounce the world and proclaim the Cronw Prince as King. He maintained that there was no harm in doing so, and that this was also desired by the queen. He refereed to the fame gained by King Siddhinarasimha Malla and Srinivas Malla of Patan by opting for an ascetic life, and said that everything would be all right Rana Bahadur Shah did likewise, and appointed him as minister. The eldest queen also supported that proposal. This matter was kept secret for six months. In the month of February 1799, it was decided to consult all the Bhardars on that proposal. The Bhardars concurred, and even signed a pledge to the effect that they would serve the Crown Prince with renewed loyalty in case the he was enthroned. After having secured such a pledge from about 100 Bhardars, Rana Bahadur Shah proclaimed Girvana Yuddda Bir Bikram Shah Dev King in March.



King Prithvi Pal Sen of Palpa was invited to conduct the coronation ceremony. He personally placed the Cronw on the head of Girban Yuddha Bir Bikram. There was another motive in calling Prithvi Pala Sen to Kathmandu. Both he and his younger brother, Rana Bahadur Sen, were confined to the Lalitpur Palace, so that the King might not be able to leave Kathmandu.

Since it was not proper for a ex-king to stay on in the capital after the coronation of his successor, Rana Bahadur Shah dressed in saffron robes, left for the sanatorium at Deopatan. Although clad in saffron rubes, he still retained his Shikha (tuft of heir on the Cronw of the head), and sacred thread. Queen Kantiwati also accompanied him at the Sanatorium. Ranarajeshwari, the eldest quee, remained at the royal palace, looing after the minor King and affairs of the state as regent. Subarnaprabha, the second queen, also stayed on in the royal palace, because both of ther sons were also minor, and had been designaged as Chautaras. But she was not allowed to attend any state function, except meetings of the Council of State. Kaji Abhiman Simha was dismissed, and appointed Bhimsen Thapa, son of Ambar Simha Thapa, who was related to him, as Sardar, and entrusted him with the responsibility of staying with Rana Bahadur Shah, who had now called Parama-Nirgunanand Swami, and attending to well-being. Bhimsen Thapa remained with the Swamin until the latter's death.

At the sanatorium of Deopatan, Milham started treating Queen Kantiwati. The Swami did not pay special attention to the sick queen. One day, suspecting that the collection of the queen had further deteriorated, he castigated the physicial, charging that his treatment was not having any effect, and punished him. The Swami thought that it was no use staying at Deopatan, and therefore shifted to Pulchok, there Siddhinarasimha Malla had once lived, along with Kantawati.

(To Be Continued)



^ Fiscal and Labor Obligations of Inhabitants of

Panchsayakhola in Nuwakot

(Bhadra Sudi 8, 1912) (66/103-08)

During the time of Prithvi Narayan Shah, the following obligations had been imposed on the inhabitants of Panchasayakhola in Nuwakot, on the Nepal-Tibet border: ''Since you live in a border territory, you have to fulfill both military and porterage obligations. Seise arms and ammunition saltpeter, sulphur, being smuggled to Tibet, auction them, and hand over the proceeds to the royal palace. Capture any rebel who may try to escape to Tibet through that territory. Provide porterage services for Sirto supplies between Nepal and Tibet. Make payment of herbs and drugs, and other supplies due as Sirto from that territory. The inhabitants of ten villages, including Kharsa and Parcyang, shall provide Hulak services. The inhabitants of other villages shall work at the gunpowder factory. Provide assistance in the collection of Jagat duties on goods traded between Nepal and Tibet. Capture persons who create disturbanaces and hand them over to the royal palace. Hulakis shall be granted exemption from all tax and Jhara obligations. They shall enjoy security of tenure on their rice lands and homesteads. Inasmuch as this area of rice lands in your territory is not large, and you connot maintain yourselves only through unirrigated hillside lands, you may bring salt from Tibet. The inhabitants of the ten villages who provide Hulak services shall be exempt from Jagat, Nirkhi, and Tak, of levies. Each household of those villages who work at the gunpowder factory may procure five manloans (of salt from Tibet).

''Subsequently, revenue officials collected Jagat duties forcibly from the inhabitants of Kharsa and Parchyang villages. Thie year, because of the war with Tibet, was have also been compelled to transport supplies of provisions, arms and ammunition, and also provide Thaple-Hulaki and Kagate Hulaki services. Frequently troop movements have created yet another burden. Our fiscal privileges have all been withdrawn. How then are we to continue providing labor services. He have to supply provisions to the Dware and his men throughout the year, as a result of which we are being compelled to sell our children.''

The following royal order was then issued, ''All customary facilities and privileges granted to the inhabitants of Panchasayakhola have been reconfirmed. Revenue officials shall not forcibly collect Jagat, Nirkhi, and Taksar levies from the inhabitants of Kharsa and Panchyang villages. Dwares and other officials shall not procure provisisions forcibly. The obligation to supply such provisions is hereby abolished. All fiscal privileges that had been granted previously shall be restored.''



^ Activies of the Guthi CorporationX

Traditionally, Guthi revenues in Nepal have been kept in a separate fund. In keeping with this tradition, the Guthi Samsthan (Guthi Corporation) was established in 1964 under a law enacted for that purpose.

His Majesty's Government handed over an amount of Rs 696,583.32 as the Guthi fund to the Guthi Corporation collected revenue amounting to Rs 1,777,497.84, and spent Rs 630,532.37 during the fiscal year 1964-65. Its income during the fiscal year 1973-74 was Rs 6,558,343, and its budget for 1974-75 totals Rs 14,598,286.

The Guthi Corporation had continued its traditional functions, and also undertaken 263 renovation and reconstruction projects during the past ten years, at a cost of Rs 9,329,373.64. The Corporation intends to spend Rs 800,000 or Rs 1 million every year on renovation and construction works.

However, the Corporation faces several diffuculites in collecting revenue. According to available statistics, Rs 6,057,623 in cash, and 354,586 maunds of paddy, are in arrears.

The Guthi Corporation performs traditional religious ceremonies through rents accruing from Guthi lands. The new rent system had reduced the income of the Corporation. Resing prices have created additional difficulties. Growing population has encotraged the trand of squatting on Guthi lands.


XExcerpts from the report of Ramachandra Paudel, Administrator of the Guthi Corporation, at its eleventh anniversary function held in Kathmandu on Kartik 28, 2031 (November 13, 1974). ^ Dharma Darshan (Nepali, quarterly, published by the Guthi Corporation). Year 1, No. 3, Kartik-Poush 2031 (October-December 1974). 59-62 PP.



Lands constitutes the chief property of the Guthi Corporation. Owns about 77,000 bighas of land in the Tarai and about 65,000 ropanis in Kathmandu Valley and the hill region. In addition, it has 150 buildings, stalls, tanks, gardens, etc. The Corporation functions its with the income accruing from these assets.

The Guthi Corporation conducts about 8,000 festivals and religious ceremonies of about 2,000 temples and shrines. In the case of Chhut Guthis, such functions are performed by individuals. Chhut Guthis are now legally under the jurisdiction of the Guthi Corporation, but they are still being managed as usually. Some Chhut Guthis pay a stipulated amount as Salami to the Guthi Corporation.

The Guthi Corporation has provided handis (i.e. rations) to 833 disabled and indigent persons, and occasional handis to 7,000 mendicants, including those who come to Kathmandu during the Shrivaratri festival. Similarly, maintenance allowances are paid to 30 persons who go to Varanasi in India to spend their last days. The Corporation has also made boarding arrangements for poor students. About 225 students are at presnt enjoying this facility.

The Guthi Corporation has started cultivating 1,500 bighas of land in the Janakapur and Narayani zones itself to meet the shortage of foodgrains for its religious functions. The corporation intends to execute a number of projects on these lands.

The Guthi Corporation has eighteen offices in different districts, with 641 employees.


(S.B. Maharjan).

Regmi Research (Private) Ltd,

Kathmandu: May 1, 1975

^ Regmi Research Series

Year 7, No. 5,

Edited By

Mahesh C. Regmi.




1. King Rana Bahadur Shah … 81

2. Preliminary Notes on the Nature of

Rana Law and Government … 88


Regmi Research (Pvt) Ltd,

Lazimpat, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Compiled by Regmi Research (Private) Ltd for private study and research. Not meant for public sale of display.


^ King Rana Bahadur ShahX


Baburam Acharya.

(Continued from the previous issue).


A few days before Milham was punished by Rana Bahadur Shah, another physician named Laxmi Narayan had offered to tread the queen through witch-doctors (Jhankris). Rana Bahadur Shah agreed. But Laxmi Narayan ultimately confessed his failure. Rana Bahadur Shah had his head shaved thereby degrading his caste-status, and banished him from Nepal. This even had taken place just a few days before the coronation of Girban Yuddha Bikram. Some time later, Chautara Krishna Shah, the youngest son of Mahoddamakirti Shah, fled to Hariharakshetra. Rana Bahadur Shah, who had was staying at Pulchok along with Queen Kantawati, was that her condition was getting worse, and that she was not responding to treatment. He therefore decided to have religious functions performed at different temples, praying for her recovery. Accordingly, such functions were performed at different temples in Kathmandu Valley through Brahmans, Gubhajus and Bandas. Approximately Rs 100,000 was spent on these functions. However, the conditionof the Queen did not improve. Finally, on Kartik, 19, (November 31) Queen Kantawati died at Aryaghat.

The grief-stricken Rana Bahadudr Shah started shouting that he wanted to be reduced to ashes together with the queen. Damodar Pande and other Bhardars, however, persuaded him not to do so. he was then brought back to Pulchok.

Seeing that the Swami had lost his mental balance, Queen Rajarajeshwari started living with him at Pulchok. She spent the night at Pulchok, and the day at the royal palace to attend to the state affairs.

Kirtiman Simha Basnyat had maneuvered the abdication of Rana Bahadur Shah and hiw own appointment as minister. He now tried another maneuver. He proposed the revival of the customary annual festival in which all nobles gathered at Nuwakot and celebrated the Holi (festival). Since


XBaburam Acharya, Nepalko Samkshipta Vrittanta (A Concise Account of Nepal). Kathmandu, Pramod Shamsher and Nir Bikram ''Pyasi'', 2022 (1966 A.D.). Chapter 18, PP. 102-09. contd…………..


the time of Prithvi Narayan Shah, the King, his brothers and others nobles, had gone to Nuwakot in the month of Falgun and stayed there for one or two months. They went to Nuwakot even in the festival was observed in Kathmandu. This practice had been discontinued later. Kirtiman Simha sought to revive this practice.

In Magh 10, he left Kathmandu for Nuwakot for this purpose. He reached Nuwakot after a journey of ten days. This step created a delimma for Queen Rajarajeshwari. She could not afford to leave Kathmandu with the Swami there, nor could she neglect Girban Yuddha Bikrama, who had already reached Nuwakot. At the time, the Swami was insisting the he would go to Kashi. The queen feared that he might run away if she too went to Nuwakot, leaving him alone. This was why the queen went to Kathmandu after affixing the royal seal on official documents. This was not liked by the Swami. He therefore personally went to Nuwakot, and arrested Ranabam Pande, nephew of Damodar Pande, and Sardar Ambar Simha Thapa, and subjected them to a humiliating treatment, and then returned to Kathmandu. Kirtiman Simha Basnyat and Damodar Pande, who were infuriated by this action of the Swami, hatched a plot to arrest him, as well as Queen Rajarajeshwari, who supported him.

However, Chautara Balabhadra Shah dissociated himself from their proposal, and hastened to Pulchok to inform the Swami and the Queen of the conspiracy. This enraged them to such an extent that they dismissed the royal court that was present in Nuwakot, and formed a new one in Kathmandy without any deliberation. In the new set-up Balabhadra Shah was appointed Chief Chautara. Bidur Shahi, who was stranded in Kathmandu, was appointed as the second Chautara. A son of Bam Shah's uncle, who was staying in Nuwakot, was made the third Chautara. The post of Chief Kaji was given to Pratiman Rana. Ranakeshar Pande, son of Damodar Pande, and Jahar Simha Basnyat, elder brother of Kirtima Simha, were appointed the second and third Kajis respectively. Similarly, some of the employees who had been dismissed previously were reappointed as Sardar. Ambar Simha Thapa, father of Bhimsen Thapa, was included in the new set-up. It cannot be said how Bhimsen Thapa viewd these changes. Anyway, the Swami, after taking all these measures, closed all the exit points from Nuwakot by building improvised fortresses at Kakani, Pulchok, and Paknajol, for four months thereafter, the Swami held full powers.



When news of all this reached Nuwakot, Kirtiman Simha Basnyat devised means to clear himself. He spread the rumor that all the charges leveled against him by Balabhadra shah were concocted, and that he had done nothing against the Swami. At the same time,he compelled Girvan Yuddha Bikram Shah to issue a royal message in the name of the people of Kathmandu. The message said, ''The Swami is guilty, although he is my father. Hence to fight against me is to abandon one's duty. Similar royal message were sent to the people of Lalitpur and Bhaktapur. But the Swami's writ continued to run in Kathmandu. He withdren funds from the treasury, and took them to Pulchok. Of this money, Rs 10,000 or Rs 12,000 was given to the queen and Balabhadra Shah, while approximately Rs 50,000 was appropriated by the Swami, Bhimsen Thapa, and Balanarsimgh Kunwar. Jagat Khawas, who was the treasurer, let the Swami take away both money and weapons. On Baisakh 20, he issued orders to the people asking them to come and help him. But as the mail transport system was not under his control, his orders could not reach all places. The system was controlled by Kirtimansimha Basnyat, who sent messages bearing the seal of Girban Yuddha Bikram, ordering troops garrisoned in various parts of the country not to enter Kathamndu Valley, but to assemble in Nuwakot. On receipt of these messages, some of the troops stationed in the western part of the kingdom actually arrived in Nuwakot. Damodar Pande won over the troops stationed at Kakani to his side, and when, in the month of Jestha, he advanced to Kudkhu, the Swami left Pulchok without giving any notice to Queen Rajarajeshwari. He reached Makwanpur, traveling through Chapagaun, Pyutar, and Pethan, and crossing the border of the country, through Parsagadhi, he headed towards Kashi.

XOn learning of the Swami's escape, Queen Rajarajeshwari felt that it was not advaisable to stay on in Kathmandu. Accordingly, two days after the Swami's flight, she lelt for Kashi through the main Chisapani route, carrying all her possession. Neither Kirtiman Simha Basnyat nor Damodar Pande attempted to intercept her. The Queen took only a fraction of the money drawn by the Swami from treasury, and left the balance behind in Pulchok. Balabhadra Shah accompanied the queen.


XIbid, Chapter 19, PP. 110-18.



Following the flight of the Swami and the queen, all the new Chautaras, including Bidur Shahi, and all the new Kajis and Sardarsm, inckuding Pratiman Rana, were dismissed, whereas the Bharadari that had been formed at Nuwakot was retained intact. Queen Subarnaprbha was now the quardian of the junior King, and functioned as regent. She was brought back to the royal palace in Kathmandu in a procession. Kirtiman Simha Basnyat was then appointed Chief Kaji, or Prime Minister.Inthe ensuing reorganization of the set-up of Chautaras and Kajis, Sardar Amar Simba Thapa was appointed Kaji. Damodar Pande, however, remained an ordinary minister with reduced powers. District and military headquarters in the western region, which were under his control, were placed under Chautara Bam Shah. This led to a rift between these two men. Damodar Pande could not accept such humiliation from his own nophew.

For nearly fifteen months, Kirtiman Simba Basnyat was all-powerful of Nepal.The supporters of senior queen were feeling jealous of him. They were even spreading the rumor that Kirtiman Simba was maintainingl illicit relationship with queen Subarnaprabha.In the month of Aswin, 1857 Vikrama, two men assassinated Kirtiman Simba Basnyat at night, when he was returning home through Hattisar after holding consultations with Sher Bahadur at the royal palace. The assassins threw his body on the road. Kirtiman Simba Basnyat usually returned home Hattisar because it was a short cut to his home. The news of his assassination spread only the next day. The assassins escaped, but they were identified. However, the persons who had ordered them to murder Kirtiman Simba had yet to be identified. Subarnaprabha and Sher Bahadur Shahi, after mutual consultations, detained eighty nobles and officers susoected to be supporters of the senior queen. Sher Bahadur let his elder brother, Bidur Shahi, escape after informing him that a court would try the conspirators in the royal palace. Damodar Pande also was let off after he had vowed not to flee. However, his son, Rana Keshar Pande, was imprisoned. Ransjit Pande was compelled to fkee to the Tarai. Several other Bharadars were also imprisoned. Some five of them, including sardar Pratiman Rana and Garbhu Khawas, were later beheaded on the charge of having spread sinister rumors. The actual assassins, however, remained at large. Bakhtwar Simba Basnyat was then appointed to succeed Kirtiman Simba Basnyat, his brother.



In the meantime, Swami Rana Bahadur Shah had reached Kashi. He was received by the local British Political Agent. Rana Bahadur Shah was allowed to live in Kashi as a refugee. Ranganath Pandit, who was four years old when his father Brajanath Pandit, was banished from Nepal, and who had now become young, 'went to Kashi immediately on hearing of RanaBahadur Shah's arrival there. Ranaganath Pandit used to stay some times at Ramnagar, and some times at Kashi. The Swami, within afew days after reaching Kashi, started preparing to come back to Nepal. He called on Parshuram Thapa, who had been living in Kashi at that time after being banished from Nepal, and asked him to go back to Nepal to win over the Bharadars, and find out a way to onable him to return home. He promised that in consideration of this service he would include the Thapas in the rank of Bharadars, which then comprised only six families.

Both Bhimsen Thapa and Ranganath Pandit were ignorant of politics. They thought that if they flattered the British, the latter might help them to reinstall the Swami on the throne of Nepal. Hence they were constantly trying to represent their viewpoint to the British Political Agent. The British, of course, were seeking to infiltrato intoNepal to derive some advantages for themselves. But they did not want to show any undue haste in this regard. They preferred a cautious approach.Earlier, when Rana Bahadur Shah was in power; they had sent a Muslim named Abdul Kadir as envoy to Nepal along with some goods as a means for paving the way for their entry into Kathmandu. But Abdul Kadir's mission had failed, and he had to return empty-handed. Even after the Swami's visit to Kashi, the British did not listen to the suggestions of Bhimsen Thapa and Ranaganath Pandit. Instead, they proposed to hold negotiations for the conclusion of a treaty with the Nepal government, with Gajaraj Mishra acting as intermediary. Gajaraj Mishra had failed to return to Kathmandu during the coronation of Girvan Yuddha in protest against Rana Bahadur Shah's abdication. He was now contacted by the British Governor General, who then made arrangements to dispatch a British envoy to Nepal to assess the situstion there and convlude a new treaty with the Nepal government. Gajaraj Mishra too thought that it was not easy to prevent the British from entering into Nepal vecause they were very strong and thae territories under their control had become large, and that it was in the interest of Nepal it self to let a British resident stay in Kathmandu,and to deal with him carefully. Avvordingly, he prepared the draft of a treaty and went to Kathmandu for a meeting with Kirtiman Simba Basnyat. Kirtiman Simba Basnyat agreed to concude a treaty.



with the British, on the condition that the Swami wold be confined to Kashi, and not allowed to engaged in any activities from there. Gajaraj Mishra, was represented Nepal, and a representative of the British, then started drafting the terms of the treaty at Patna. It was at this time that Kirtiman Simha Basnyat was assassinated in Nepal, and replaced by Bakhwar Simha as Chief Kaji. Sardar Subuddhi Khadka was then the Chief Advisor to Queen Subarnaprabha.

The draft of the treaty was finalized at Patna in the month of November. It proposed an annual allowance of Rs 80,000, to be obtained from the revenue of Pallo-Kirat and Morang, and supply of some provisions to Rana Bahadur Shah, on the condition that he would refrain from interfering in the affairs of Nepal, and agreed to live peacefully and under the serveilance of both the Nepal government and the British government. The Swami was permitted to maintain 100 men as his body-guards, and depute his own men to collect his allowance. The treaty also provided that the Nepal government itself would help to collect the allowance, in case the Swami failed to depute his men to do so. In addition, the treaty provided for the abolition of the rule requiring Nepal to give two elephants's annually as a tribute to the British for the territories of the Tarai. The treaty also contained a provision which was very embarrasming to Nepal. The provision was that dispute between Oudh and Nepal. This provision was fraught with dangerours implications for Nepal. The British could not be expected to take sides with Nepal, ingnoring the case of the Nawab of Oudh, who was under their protection. Another provision in the draft treaty was that the responsibility for the safety of the Bhardars of Nepal was to be borne by British. Indeed, he who assumed the role of protector would also become master. Notwithstanding these features, the draft treaty was signed by the Governor-General, and, in April 1802, Captain Knox, who was appointed as British envoy to Nepal, took it to Nepal. He was accompanied by Gajaraj Mishra and Raghunath Pandit. Queen Subarnaprabha had sent Damodar Pande to the Tarai to receive the British envoy. Captain Knox finally reached Kathmandu with his treaty.

The Swami had taken only a small amount of money to Kashi. He soon ran out of funds, because he had to incur substantial expenses there. Shortage of funds led to a quarrel with Queen Rajarajeshwari. The queen, accompanied by Balabhadra Shah and about nine or ten servants, left for the Ramagar estate in Bettiah, and took shelter with Rana Hara



kuman Datta Sen, who was living there after having been driven out of Tanahu. She had no hesitation in staying at Ramnagar, because she has been brought up there during her chillhood. On hearing of Kirtiman Simha's assassination, she proceeded towards Rautahat. Queen Subarnaprabha learned of this, and dispatched a contigent of troops, with a letter bearing the seal of King Girban Yuddha, directing Queen Rajarajeshwari to withdraw from Rautahat. But the troops had no courage to expel Queen Rajarajeshwari, who remained entrenched in Rautahat. Rajarajeshwari was still living in Rautahat when Captain Knox arrived in Kathmandu. In the meantime, Balabhadra Shah died suddenly, leaving Rajarajeshwari helpless. In these circumstances, she decided towards Kathmandu. Queen Subarnaprabha, however, dispatched troops to the outpost at Churiya-Bhanjyang in order to shop Rajarajeshwari from advancing towards the capital. When the troops actually tried to stop them, Rajarajeshwari and her female servants brandished their swords. The troops therefore did not dar to arrest them, and so arrested only her bearers and porters. Rajarajeshwari and her attendants proceeded on foot and reached Chisapanigadhi. The local administrator permitted them to spend the nigh at that palace, and informed Queen Subarnaprabha accordingly. Another company of troops was then sent from Kathmandu to capture Queen Rajarajeswari and her entourage. The troops encountered Queen Rajarajeshwari's party at Kulekhani. The officers tried to arrest the Queen, but the soilders welcomed her, and ever carried her palanquin to Kimdol near Thankot. Queen Rajarajeshwari remained for some days at Kimdol, because she did not consider it advisable untiol the Bhardars came forward to welcome her.

(To Be Continued)



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