|Regmi Research Series|
Regmi Research Collections
Contributions to the Anthropology of Nepal
Kipat Lands of Chepangs
Regmi Research Collections
Minting of Gorkhpuri Coins
Selected Documents of Aswin 1842
Reconfirmation of Birta Lands in Reginas
Restoration of Bandha Lands
Bandha in your name on payment of Rs 1,421. The lands will be resumed whenever the money is paid back.Jagir Land Reassignment
Dwares of Raginas in Lamjung).Capture of Elephants
Umras and other officials.Refundment of Paddy
Rescission of Punishment
Bekh Land Grant in Gorkha
Orchard Granted to Dhanabir Lama
Increase in Rent on Rice Lands
Appiontment of Priests
Appointment of Chaudharis
Construction of Irrigation Channel
Year 7, No. 7,
Mahesh C. Regmi.
1. The Fakirana Levy … 121
2. The Dhamra Kachahari … 122
3. Landholding, Trade, and Revenue Collection
in Solukhumbhu … 122
4. A Correction … 127
5. Kipat Lands of Chepangs … 127
6. Revenue Collection in Bara and Parsa … 128
7. Minting of Gorakhpuri Coins … 129
8. Selected Documents of Aswin-Kartik 1842 … 129
9. Selected Documents of Marga-Paush 1887 … 132
10. King Rana Bahadur Shah … 134
Regmi Research (Pvt) Ltd,
Lazimpat, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Compiled by Regmi Research (Private) Ltd for private study and research. Not meant for public sale of display.
The Fakirana Levy
The Fakirana levy was collected at the rate of one paisa from each household in Kathmandu Valley. The proceeds were utilized to feed visiting fakirs. The levy was first introduced in Chaitra 1848 (March 1792). Khwaja Bux Shahi was authorized through a royal order issued in that year to utilize the proceeds of the levy in that manner and appropriate the surplus amount for his own use.1 In Marga 1928 (November 1871), the order was reconfirmed in favor of Khawaja Bux Shahi, Mehboob Bux Shahi, as the original document was destroyed by fire.2
In the eastern Tarai districts, tax-free lands granted to members of Islamic religious sects were known as Fakirana. For instance, in Baisakh 1843 (April 1786), King Rana Bahadur granted a mouja of waste lands in Mahottari district to Rahman Khan, a fakir, as ''Sarba-Anka-Bitalab Fakirana.''3
1. ''Royal Order to Khawaja Bux Shahi,'' Chaitra Badi 5, 1848 (March 1792). Regmi Research Collections, Vol. 5, PP. 71-72.
2. ''Commander-In-Chief Ranoddip Sinha's order to Dittha Kalidas of the Sadar Dafdarkhana,'' Marga Badi 9, 1928 (November 1871). Ibid, Vol. 55, PP. 189-91.
3. ''Sarba-Anka-Bitalab Fakirana Land Grant to Rahman Khan in Mahottari,'' Baisakha Sudi 1, 1883 (April 1786). Ibid, Vol. 5, P. 151. Ijara grant to Chautariya Dalamardan Shah for Revenue Collection in Bara, Parsa, Rautahat, and Sarlahi Districts.'' Ashadh Sudi 6, 1843 (June 1786). Ibid, Vol. 25, P. 146.
The Dharma Kachahari
A brief note on the Dharma Kachahari, an anti-corruption court established by Prime Minister Jang Bahadur, had been given in the ^ (Year 7, No. 2, February 1, 1975, PP. 32-33). The full designation of the court was ''Sri 5 Gorkha Sarkarko Umraole Imandar Heri Dharma Garai Pancha Rakhyako Dharma Kachahari.'' (The Dharma Kachahari, consisting of judges chosen from among persons of integrity, and administered oaths of office, by the nobles of the royal court of Gorkha).X
X''Order from the Dharma Kachahari to the Sadar Dafdarkhana.'' Kartik Badi 7, 1928 (November 1871). ^ , Vol. 55, PP. 188-89.
Landholding, Trade, and Revenue Collection
Mahesh C. Regmi.
In a recent article,X Mark Oppitz has stated that the first ancestors of the Sherpa immigrated into Solukhumbu during the middle of the six teenth century, presumably around 1533. The next wave of immigration occurred from about the middle of the eighteenth century, when people who had lived in the surroundings of Dingri, the adjacent areas north of the main Himalayan range, started immigrating, almost exclusively to Khumbu.
XMark Oppitz, ''Myths and Facts: ''Reconsidering some Data concerning the Clan History of the Sherpa,'' in Christoph von Furer-Haimendorf (ed.), ^ . (Warminster, England: Aris & Phillips, 1974). PP. 232-43.
Sherpas in the Solukhumbu have owned lands under the Kipat system. The following documents sheds some light on the process whereby their immigrants ancestors these lands.
From King Rana Bahadur,
To the Mijhars of Solu,
Your great-grandfathers had bought lands in Solu against payments in money from the great-grandfathers of Sunuwars and Kirats….We hereby reconfirmed these purchases. Use these lands with full assurance and maintain them properly. Pay taxes and provide laor services.
Ashadh Sudi 12, 1843
Regmi Research Collections, Vol. 6. P. 168.
The term ''great-grandfather'' should not be taken literally. Obviously, it is used in a loose sense to denote ''ancestors.'' In any case, this document clearly shows that the ancestors of the Sherpas who came from Tibet during the middle of the sixteenth century purchased lands which the autochthonous Sunuwar and Kirati communities were holding under communal tenure. The term Kipat itself may not have been in use at that time.
The following documents also refer to the ''Kinuwa Kipat,'' or Kipat lands purchases by the Sherpas in the Sulo area:-
1. ''Thek-Thiti Arrangement for Revenue collection in Lapcha Parganna of Solu District.'' Kartik Badi 7, 1886. Regmi Research Collections, Vol. 27, PP. 20-23.
2. ''Thek-Thiti Arrangement for Revenue Collection in Khimti Parganna of Solu District.'' Kartik Badi 7, 1886. Ibid, PP. 24-21.
3. ''Complaints of Sherpa Kipat-owners of Solu-Khumbu.'' Aswin Sudi 3, 1949. Regmi Research Collections, Vol. 57, PP. 13-21.
In the Sherpas of Nepal (Calcutta and Delhi: Oxford Book Co., 1964, PP. 117-18), Christoph vom Furer-Haimendorf has given a brief description of the revenue-collection system of Khumbu. The following document gives additional information on the subject.
From King Rana Bahadur Shah,
To Ganba Karma Tanduk, and the eight Mijhars and villagers of Khumbu.
From the time of your fathers and grandfathers, you have been in possession of lands in the areas bounded by Khambalung in the east, Larcha-Dobhan in the South, Rolwaling in the west and Tambalangur in the north.
On these lands, you have been making the following payments:
Sirto … Rs 750
Mejmani … One goat
Rice … One pathi
For the Dashain festival – Four goats. Pagari fees from Mijhars:-
One goat (Paltiboka)
One pathi of rice
Saunefagu … Four manas of salt from eacxh household.
Provisions for the Dware … Two pathis of salt and eight annas for curry
(Tihun) from each household.
From the (Vikrama) year, 1885, in order to encourage you to promote settlement and make the area polulous, we hereby reduce the quatity of salt supplied by each household (for the Dware) from two pathis to one pathi and four manas.
We hereby confirm the (lands) purchased by you from those persons who keep yaks, obtain fodder from their pastures, and provide labor services ([Boko]-boko), out of the Kipat lands traditionally used by you within the four boundaries mentioned above.
Lands of persons who have emigrated from Khumbu, as well as other lands, have been customary used on a commusal (Sa[.]jai) and equitable (Sahalahasanga) basis. For the future also, we confirmed individual holdings of pasture (Kharkha), homestead (Suwa[.]ra[.]) and other (Chisa[.]) lands, and order that lands of persons who have emigrated from Khumbu, as well as other lands, shall be used as before in a communal and quitable basis.
The pasturage tax (Kharchari) has customarily not been collected from persons who occupy lands within the four boundaries mentioned above, pay the Sirto and other taxes and levies, and provide labor services. The pasturage tax shall not be collected from them in the future also.
Traditionally, trade has been regulated by the Amali. In the future also, the inhabitants of that area shall conduct trade during the periond from Baisakh to Kartik in the markets specified by the headmen (Pagari) and Dware of Ghat-Khumbu. The Amali shall imposed fines on persons who trade in areas other than such markets.
From Marga to Chaitra, the inhabitants of Ghat-Khumby may conduct trade wherever they like.
The Dware shall not engaged in trade.
These persons who have fled across the mountains (langurkati) for fear of their creditors shall be persuaded to come back. The creditors shall recover the principal amount of their loans in installments in the presence of Ganbas and Mijhars.
In case the emigrants do not come back, their lands and homesteads shall be reallotted to new families, and taxes and levies (Sirto) shall be collected, and labor services obtained from them.
In the emigrants come back and seek to reoccupy their lands and homesteads after these have been reallotted in the manner mentioned above, their request shall not be granted by evicting the newly-settled families. Instead, such returnees shall occupy the lands allotted to them by Ganbas and Mujhirs.
Chak-Chakui (fines collected for adultery) and Maryo-aputali (eascheat property) have traditionally been exempted in the area. The exemption shall continue.
Raja-Anka (royal) levies, and other taxes which may be imposed at a countrywide basis [….], shall be paid through the Amali.
Payments due according to the previous royal order (Lal-mohar) shall continue to be made.
In consideration of their assistance to the Dware in the discharge of his function, the eight Mijhars have customarily been enjoying 50 percent remission on the Sirto tax due on an Abal homestead. The remission shall continue.
Promote settlement in the village uder your jurisdiction. While performing work that may be necessary at any time, the Ganbas, Namchhimbya and the other seven Mijhars shall remain in attendance before the Amali.
We hereby promulgated this new royal order, withdrawing the royal order issed in the (Vikrama) year 1881. with due assurance, act according to this order.
Chaitra Sudi 15, 1884
Regmi Research Collections, Vol. 27, PP. 74-76.
Mahesh C. Regmi, A study in Nepali Economic History, 1768-1846. (New Delhi: Manjushri Publishing House, 1971).
Page 99. ''In certain hill regions in both eastern and western Nepal, regulations were promulgated from time to time prescribing the rate of interest at 22% on cash loans and 25% on in-kind loans.''
The correct figure is 10 percent on cash loans. The difficutly in interepretation arose from the use of the Nepali word ''baiso'' to indicate the rate. ''Bais,'' of course, means twenty-two, but the figure does not indicate the percentage. Amounts were calculated in multiples of twenty (Bis), and ''Baiso'' means that Rs 22 was to be paid back on a loan of Rs 20. This meant the traditional rate of 10 percent.
On the banks of the Chumakhole in the Pinda area of Chisapanigadhi, several Chepang families owned lands under Kipat tenure. Around 1837 A.D., they converted a part of these lands into rice-fields. The areas thus reclaimed totaled 70 muris.
In 1854 A.D., survey officers deputed by the government measured these rice-fields and recommended the assessment of taxes, in effect coverting these lands inta Raikar tenure.
A delegation of the Chepang Kipat-owners then visisted Kathmandu and submitted a petition protecting against this action. They maintained that they were paying taxes on their homesteads and providing unpaid labor services to the government, and that they had no rice-fields other than the seventy muris they reclaimed after 1837 A.D.
Their statements were corroborated by knowledgeable residents of the Pinda area, including Pandit Jivanath Upadhayaya Lamichhane. It was also stated that the Chepangs had been occupying the lands for twenty or twenty-two generations.
The government thereupon cancelled the assessment of taxes on the lands of the Chepangs, and reconfirmed the status of these lands as Kipat.
Source: ''Order to Sadar Dafdarkhana Office Ragarding Kipat Lands of Chepangs in Pinda.'' Baisakh Sudi 4, 1926 (April 1869). ^ , Vol. 55, PP. 485-90.
Revenue Collection in Bara and Parsa
From King Girban,
To Dasharath Khatri.
We hereby grant you authority for revenue collection under the Amanat system in the area situated east of the Bariya river and west of the Adhbara river, in the districts of Bara and Parsa with headquarters at Makwanpur, with effet from Baisakh Badi 1, 1864 (April 1807). With due assurance, appoint employees, collection revenues and transmit the proceeds to the Tosakhana Office. Appropriate emoluments as follows. Transit […..] accounts on the basis of Jammabandi records compiled by the Munsiff, and obtain clearance:-
Subba Dasharath Khatri … Rs 2,000
Two Fouzdars … Rs 450
One Peshkar and Two Nausindas … Rs 400
Shrawan Badi 8, 1864
Regmi Research Collections, Vol. 20, P. 447.
From King Griban
To Raja Siddhi Pratap Shah of Gulmi.
We hereby grant you authority to install a mint to produce Gorkhapuri paisa coins with copper mined throughout your territories. Mint paisa coins and bring them into circulation with full assurance.
Falgun Sudi 7, 1869
Regmi Research Collections, Vol. 20, P. 14.
Restoration of Property of Tharghars in Kaski
(Aswin Badi 5, 1842) (25/1)
Public notification directiong that all slaves of Bhima Shah, and all property of the Tharghar families left unconfiscated on the fifth day after the conquest of Kaski, had been restored to them.
(Aswin Badi 10, 1842) (35/1)
Royal order to Taranath Lahani recorfiming his Birta lands in Raginas (Lamjung).
Appointment of Subbas in Vijayapur
(Aswin Badi 10, 1842) (25/1)
Appintment of Gangaram Thapa as Joint Subba of (the territories of the annexed Kingdom of Vijayapur in the far-eastern hill region) situated between the Kanaka and Tistan rivers, along with Jasya Khawas.
(Aswin Badi 10, 1842) (25/2)
Royal order to Shaktiballabh Bhattarcharya: ''Your Bandha lands had been obtained as Birta by Brajanath Pandit, but your money had not been refunded. Now lands totaling 1,400 muris are reconfirmed as ^ in your name on payment of Rs 1,421. The lands will be resumed whenever the money is paid back.
Jagir Land Reassignment
(Aswin Badi 10, 1842) (25/2)
Royal order to Abhiman Khatri and Manya Roka directing them to relinquish possession of 200 muris of lands, which they had been using as Jagir, to Narasing Khatri. (Abhiman Khatri and Manya Roak appear to have been ^ of Raginas in Lamjung).
Capture of Elephants
(Aswin sudi 1, 1842) (25/2)
Royal order to …Singh Rana directing him to organize a Khedah (elephant-capturing) expedition through Jhara labor.
(Kartik Sudi 4, 1842) (25/2-3)
Royal order to Madho Singh Rana authorizing him to dispose of cases relating to Panchakhat crimes, and use the income of pay the salaries of ^ and other officials.
Refundment of Paddy
(Kartik Sudi 7, 1842) (25/3)
Royal order to Adai Jasya Khawas directing him to return paddy worth Rs 211½ which Kulananda Chaudhari had used for the royal household.
(Kartik Sudi 7, 1842) (25/3)
Royal order to Subedar Singh Rana to restore the goods which he had seized from Ramachandra Tiwari on some charge. Ramachandra Tiwari had also been granted exemption from payment of the Kusahi-Bisahi levy.
(Kartik Sudi 7, 1842 ) (25/3)
Pasture lands granted as Bekh to Shiva Narayan Khatri in Dhungagadya-Bhanjyang village of Gorkha.
Guthi Land Grant
(Kartik Sudi 7, 1842 ) (25/3)
Eighty muris of rice lands as well as unirrigated (Dihi) lands, at Chepeghat, endowed as Guthi for a temple there, were assigned to Kulananda Pande for operating religious functions. The lands were previously held by Lanchhya Koirala.
(Kartik Sudi 7, 1842) (25/4)
Unirrigated (Dihi) lands held by Hanya Karki were granted to Dhanabir Lama for the cultivation of fruits and flowers. Dhanabir Lama was directed to supply the pruduce to the government.
(Kartik Sudi 7, 1842) (25/4)
1. Lands in Markhu valley were mortgaged by the government of Shiva Narayan Khatri on payment of Rs 201. ''The mortagage will be redeemed whenever the money is paid back.''
2. Ninety-six ropanis of land at Thamel and Paknajol in Kathmandu were mortgaged by the government to Ranabhanjan Pande on payment of Rs 1,501 on the same terms.
Selected Documents of Marga-Poush 1887
Marga Badi 9, 1887) (44/152)
Forty ropanis of land (in Kathmandu?), under the jurisdiction of the Tusal-Dhansar Office, were granted to Gaja Simha Thapa on payment of a ground-rent (Mahasul) amounting to eight annas per ropani.
(Marga Badi 9, 1887) (44/154)
Chautariya Fatte Jung Shah was granted authority to increase rents wherever possible on rice lands and homesteads assigned as Jagir to the Gurubuz Company in the region situated between the Dudhkosi and Pyuthan. Lands assigned to Rakam workers were exempted from such increase.
(Marga Badi 9, 1887) (44/154-55)
Three documents appointing Naranarayan Acharya, Ramanarayan, Jagannath, and Naga Jardanath Jogi as priests of temple in Argha, Sarangkot (Kaski) and Bhirkot respectively.
Closure of Tracts in Palung-Bhainse Area
(Marga Badi 11, 1887) (44/155-57)
Order to Lt. Bhwani Simha to erect obstructions in track leading through the Palung and Bhainse areas to the south.
(Marga Badi 14, 1887) (44/157)
Kirparam, Shivadayal, and Bahori were appointed Chaudharis in Khalisa Parganna of Saptari district, with Nankar land assignments.
(Marga Badi 14, 1887) (44/157-58)
Royal order to Bhavanath Chaudhari and Devanath Chaudhari: ''Construct Channels from the Geruwa and other rives to irrigate lands in Pakari Parganna (of Saptari district) with the income from Haseri (?) levies collected in that district. Punish any person who attempts to breach these channels.''
(Marga Badi 30, 1887) (44/158)
Royal order to Sardar Jahar Simha Baniya: ''Disburse a sum of Rs 3,196, being the shortfall in the emoluments (Khangi) of Dada Sardar Ranabir Rana, from the contract revenues of Bara, Parsa, and Rautahat for the (Vikrama) year 1887.''
(Marga Sudi 4, 1887) (44/159)
Royal order to Subedar Bag Singh Khadka: "Dhamsingya Chapang has killed may people, and thus rendered the village desolate. Take him to the main road and hang him in the presence of everybody till he is dead.''
(Marga Sudi 4, 1887) (44/159)
Receipt for revenue collected from Bara, Parsa and Rautahat through Sardar Jhar Simha Baniya for the year 1887, totaling Rs 1,108 and two annas. The breakdown was as follows:-
66 asharfi coins of different kinds … Kaldar Rs 1,104 and two annas.
Expenses paid while dispatching
asharfi coins from Patna … ^
Total … Rs 1,108 and two annas.
King Rana Bahadur ShahX
(Continued from the Previous issue)
Rana Bahadur Shah remained quiet for some days when his friends, who had accompanied him from Kashi, were living. After they were went back, Rana Bahadur Shah put off the dress of an ascetic, and put on royal robes. He then entered the royal palace. Damodar Pande was beheaded at a place near Lumadi. His son, Ranakeshar Pande, Taksari Bhim Khwars, his three sons, and two or three other persons, were also beheaded Dware Saman Simha, Subedar Shankhadev, Subedar Mandhan, and Sardar Indra Man Khatri shared the same fate.
When a new Bhardari was organized, Ranadhwaj Shah, She Bahadur Shahi, Pran Shah, and Bam Shah were appointed as the first, second third and fourth Chautariyas respectively. Bhimsen Thapa could have become the first Kaji at that time, because the reorganization had been arranged him himself and Sher Bahadur Shahi. He, therefore, did not think it appropriate to occupy the position of first Kaji in the very first stage. He appointed Kaji Ranajit Pande, father-in-law of his brother who danced to his tune, to that post, Bhimsen Thapa himself ranked as a Kaji of the second grande. Bhimsen Thapa, his father, Amar Simha Thapa, and his brother Nayan Simha Thapa, were also appointed in the same position. Kaji Amar Simha Thapa (senior), and his sons were won over to the Thepa group. Bakhtwar Simha was appointed as the fourth Kaji, and Narsing Gurung as the fifth. Ranganath Pandit and Vidyakar Bhatta were appointed Gurus, their status being above that of a Chautara. Ranganath Pandit also onbtained the portfolio of foreign affairs. Subarnaprabha has not designated as the foreign affairs. Subarnaprabha was not designated as the Queen-Mother. Her son, Ranadyot Shah, was allowed to continue in the office of Chief Chautara.
XBaburam Acharya, ^ (A Concise Account of Nepal). Kathmandu; Pramod Shamsher and Nir Bikram ''Pyasi.'' 2022 (1966), PP. 119-26.
Arrangements were made for arresting Prithvipal Sen, King of Palpa, in a deceitful manner. A letter was sent to him in the name of King Girban to come to Kathmandu along with his sister to arrange for her wedding with Rana Bahadur. But Prithvipal Sen sent his sister along with his brother Chautariya Ran Bahadur Sen. King Girban sent another letter telling Prothvipal Sen to come himself, since it was not proper to solemnize the wedding throught Ran Bahadur Sen, who was junior to King Rana Bahadur Shah. Prithvipal Sen then came to Kathmandu, although unwillingly. He was arrested along with his brother and his personal guards on the way, and was kept in detention at the Lalitpur Palce. Bhimsen Thapa subsequently occupied the entire hill territories and two-thirds of the Tarai territories of the kingdom of Palpa by sending troops under the command of Kaji Amar Simba Thapa (junior) and Dala Bhanjan Pande. The youngest brother of Prithvipal Sen was then in Palpa. He reached Gorakhpur along with his sisters-in-law, occupied a place south of Butaul, and called Silon, and thus settked ubder the British.
RanaBahadur Shah did not have any power after the formation of the new Bhardari. He was neither a minister nor a King. The ministers obeyed his orders only when they considered it proper to do so. But he was quite satisfied, because the Bhaedars did not opppse him.
Bhimsen Thapa had deputed Amar Simba Thapa to Garhwal, thinking that Garhwal should be occupied before Palpa. He sent the troops of Palpa to Garhwal, so as to make Prithvipal Sen poweress. Some time previously, an earthquake had occurred in Garhwal, causing the death of the queens. Fifteen percent of the population was killed, and landslides had taken place. Lands were therefore left uncultivated. The King of Garhwal had quarreled with his son, and the Bharadars were divided into two groups. The King of Gaehwal could not face the situation, and so fled across the brother. The Nepali Vakil deputed there was a supporter of Damodar Pande. He had fought against Amar Simba Thapa in support of the King of Garhwal. But he was defeated, arrested and beheaded. Even then, Pradyumna Shah, King of Garhwal, sold his throne for Rs 60,000 in order to reoccupy his Kindom. He recruited troops in India, and fought against Gorkhali troops in Dehradun. But he was defeated, and subsequently killed. His son and brother fled across the border. His youngest brother was also arrested and detained in Kumaun. In this way, the Kindoms of Palpa and Garhwal were annexed by Nepal.
At that time, there was a civil war in the Kingdom fof Sirmur, situated west of Garhwal, and the King, Karma Prakash, was dethroned. His uncle, Krishna Simha, then sent up his own infant son on the throne. Amar Simha Thapa sent a small force to help the dethroned King Karma Prakash when the latter came to Garhwal. But the troops sustained a defeat. At that time, there ware about twenty-one petty kingdoms in the present Simla district, of which Sirmur, Kahlur and Handur were prominent. Sansar Chandra, King of Kangra, was seeking an opportunity to occupy these small kingdoms. Mahachandra, King of Kahlur, planned to invade Kangre through the cooperation of the Nepal government. When Bhimsen Thapa sent information that Nepal would send troops, Ambar Simha Thapa removed removed Krishna Simha from Sirmur and restored Karma Prakash to the throne. The other small kingdoms, including Kahlur, then came under the control of Nepal.
At the time when the invastion of Kangra was being planned, Bhimsen Thapa did another hateful deed. He removed Queen Rajarashwari, along with her attendants, from the royal palace, and kept her at a public house in Narayanhiti, which had been confiscated from Ranabir Simha Basnyat. After some days, she was sent to Helambu, and 100 armymen were deputed there to look after her.
Bhimsen Thapa thereafter made plans to confiscate the houses of the grandsons of Mahoddam Kirti Shah had the sons of Dalamardan Shah. None of them had committed any offense which could be proved. Pahalman Shah, eldest son of Mahoddam Shah, and Bhimarudra Shah. Since Pahalman Shah had died, all of them were living together in his house. Balabhadra Shah was childless, and had died in Rautahat. After the death of Shrikrishna Shah, younger brother of Balabhadra Shah, at Hariharkshetra, his sons, Bir Bahadur and Kul Chandra, had been living together with their cousins. They had big house, with a large compound, south of the Tundikhel. Bhimsen Thapa charged Balabhadra Shah of collusion with Queen Rajrajeshwari in order to grab his houses. Dalamardar Shah's house was located on the main road leading to the present New Road from Indrachok. A part of the house can still be seen there. Although the house had no compound, a considerable amount of rent was collected from cloth merchants. Dalamardhan Shah had already died, and his son, Kulachandra Shah, who was ten years old
lived there with his mother. Bhimsen Thapa leveled false charged against Dalamardan Shah, detained all of them at Bhandarkhal, and occupied the big house located near Tundikhel which was owned jointly by the five persons including Birabhadra Shah. After Bahadur Shahi had actively helped him, as he wanted the house of Dalmardan Shah. But a quarrel ensued when Bhimsen Thapa wanted to give that house to Ranaganath Pandit. After two days, Ranganath succeeded in occupying the house. Bhimsen Thapa had detained Rajrajeshwari at Helambu lest she should create any obstruction on depriving these persons of their property.
There was a split between Bhimsen Thapa and Sher Bahadur Shahi when Ranganath Pandit obtained the house of Dalamardan Shah in Indrachok. Previously, when Rana Bahadur Shah came from Kashi, Rajarajeshwari had arrested Ranajit Pande, Ambar Simha Thapa (senior), Tribhuwan Khawas and other persons, since they were opposed to her as well as to Damodar Pande. Sher Bahadur Shahi also opposed Rajarajeshwari. But he was not in detention, since he was a Chautara belonging to royal family. Therefore, he instigated troops in Kathmandu against Rajarajeshwari and Damodar Pande. He also won over Narsing Gurung, who then occupied a ministerial position, ousted the government of Rajarejeshwari and Damodar Pande, and established that of himself and Bhimsen Thapa. That is why Sher Bahadur Shahi had claimed the house of Dalamardan Shah.
Meanwhile, the plan to invade Kangra was underway. Nayan Simha Thapa, brother of Bhimsen Thapa, reached Simla by crossing the Yamuan river with troops and met Ambar Simha Thapa (senior). The petty kingdoms situated on the way easily occupied. It was easy to cross the Sutlej river through the hill region. Ambar Simha Thapa sent troops there and occopued the Kingdom of Handur. But he was checked by the British while occupying the Tarai territories belonging to that kingdom. The Gorkhali groops crossed the Sutlej river at two pointgs, defeated the commander of Sansar Chandra's troops at the battle of Mahalmori, and extended Gorkha's territory up to the Byasa river, except the district of Kangra. Sansar Chandra had to face a defeat because the petty kings driven our by him had gone over to the Nepal side. Sansar Chandra himself was staying safely inside his fort.
Preparations for another adventure were underway in Kathmandu. After the return of Rana Bahadur Shah, the King of Palpa had been kept in detention, because Rana Bahadur Shah had to marry again to provide a regent to the infant King Girban. But Rana Bahadur Shah was actually married to another girl, not to the sister of the King of Palpa.