Abstracts available only since vol. 27: 1 (Spring 2001) icon

Abstracts available only since vol. 27: 1 (Spring 2001)

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Volume 17, Nos. 1&2, Spring-Summer 1989

Daniel, Walter C. and Patrick J. Huber. “^ The Voice of the Negro and the Atlanta Riot of 1906: A Problem in the Freedom of the Press.” 23-28.

Ponder, Stephen. “Partisan Reporting and Presidential Campaigning: Gilson Gardner and E.W.

Scripps in the Election of 1912.” 3-12.

Rutenbeck, Jeffrey B. “Editorial Perception of Newspaper Independence and the Presidential

Campaign of 1872.” 13-22.

Volume 17, Nos. 3&4, Summer-Autumn 1989

Bindas, Kenneth J. “The Strains of Commitment: American Periodical Press and South Vietnam,

1955-1960.” 63-70.

McDaniel, Toni. “A ‘Hitler Myth’? American Perception of Adolf Hitler, 1933-1938.” 46-53.

Reed, Barbara Strauss. “Rosa Sonneschein and The American Jewess.” 54-62.

Volume 18 (single issue volume), 1992

Bekken, Jon. “‘The Most Vindictive and Most Vengeful Power’: Labor Confronts the Chicago

Newspaper Trust.” 11-17.

Liebovich, Louis. “Economics and United States Newspapers: Suggestions for Research.” 41-44.

Pilgrim, Tim A. “Newspapers as Natural Monopolies: Some Historical Considerations.” 3-10.

Simpson, Roger. “Seattle Newsboys: How Hustler Democracy Lost to the Power of Property.”


Sotiron, Minko. “Concentration and Collusion in the Canadian Newspaper Industry, 1895-1920.”


Streitmatter, Rodger. “Economic Conditions Surrounding Nineteenth-Century African-American

Women Journalists: Two Case Studies.” 33-40.

Volume 19, No. 1, Spring 1993

Harrison, Stanley L. “Bibliography of Press Criticism by Robert Benchley (Guy Fawkes) for the

New Yorker.” 26-27.

Stavitsky, Alan G. “Listening for Listeners: Educational Radio and Audience Research.” 11-18.

Theoharis, Athan. “The FBI, the Roosevelt Administration, and the ‘Subversive’ Press.” 3-10.

Volume 19, No. 2, Summer 1993

Dicken-Garcia, Hazel. “Reflections (on) Edwin Emery 1914-1993.” 42.

Haller, Beth. “The Little Papers: Newspapers at 19th-Century Schools for Deaf Persons.” 43-50.

Mitchell, Catherine. “Historiography: A New Direction for Research on the Woman’s Rights

Press.” 59-63.

Olmstead, Kathryn. “‘An American Conspiracy’: The Post-Watergate Press and the CIA.” 51-58.

Volume 19, No. 3, Autumn 1993

Collins, Ross F. “Positioning the War: The Evolution of Civilian War-Related Advertising in

France.” 79-86.

Ross, Felecia Jones. “The Cleveland Call and Post and the New Deal: A Change in African

American Thought.” 87-92.

Streitmatter, Rodger. “The Advocate: Setting the Standard for the Gay Liberation Press.” 93-102.

Volume 19, No. 4, Winter 1993

Ponder, Stephen. “‘Nonpublicity’ and the Unmaking of a President: William Howard Taft and

the Ballinger-Pinchot Controversy of 1909-1910.” 111-20.

Schaefer, Richard J. “Reconstructing Harvest of Shame: The Limitations of a Broadcast

Journalism Landmark.” 121-32.

Volume 20, No. 1, Spring 1994

Beasley, Maurine. “Mary Marvin Breckenridge Patterson: Case Study of One of ‘Murrow’s
Boys.’” 25-33.

Mulcrone, Mick. “‘Those Miserable Little Hounds’: World War I Censorship of the Irish

World.” 15-24.

Rivera-Sanchez, Milagros. “Developing an Indecency Standard: The Federal Communications

Commission and the Regulation of Offensive Speech, 1927-1964.” 3-14.

Volume 20, No. 2, Summer 1994

Egan, Kathryn S. “A Constructivist’s View of an Earthquake: Edith Irvine Photographs San

Francisco 1906.” 67-73.

Godfrey, Donald (with Alf Pratte). “Elma ‘Pem’ Farnsworth: The Pioneering of Television.” 74-


Pratte, Alf (with Donald Godfrey). “Elma ‘Pem’ Farnsworth: The Pioneering of Television.” 74-


Waters, Ken. “Christian Journalism’s Finest Hour? An Analysis of the Failure of the National

Courier and Inspiration.” 55-56.

Volume 20, Nos. 3&4, Autumn-Winter 1994

Caudill, Edward. “The Press and Tails of Darwin.” 107-115.

Dicken-Garcia, Hazel. “Mary Ann Yodelis Smith remembered.” 94-95.

Domke, David. “The Black Press in the ‘Nadir’ of African-Americans.” 131-38.

Moses, James L. “Journalistic Impartiality on the Eve of Revolution: the Boston Evening Press,

1770-1775.” 125-30.

Rhodes, Jane. “”Race, Money, Politics and the Antebellum Black Press.” 95-106.

Touba, Mariam. “Tom Paine’s Plan for Revolutionizing America: Diplomacy, Politics, and the

Evolution of a Newspaper Rumor.” 116-24.

Volume 21, No. 1, Spring 1995

Aucoin, James L. “The Re-emergence of American Investigative Journalism, 1960-1975.” 3-15.

Roberts, Nancy. “‘Ten Thousand Tongues’ Speaking for Peace: Purposes and Strategies of the

Nineteenth-Century Peace Advocacy Press.” 16-28.

Thornton, Brian. “Muckraking Journalists and Their Readers: Perceptions of Professionalism.”


Volume 21, No. 2, Summer 1995

Bradley, Patricia. “Media Leaders and Personal Ideology: Margaret Cousins and the Women’s

Service Magazines.” 79-87.

Foust, James C. “E.W. Scripps and the Science News Service.” 58-64.

Kaplan, Richard. “The Economics of Popular Journalism in the Gilded Age: The Detroit Evening

News in 1873 and 1888.” 65-78.

Volume 21, No. 3, Autumn 1995

Brislin, Tom. “Extra! The Comic Book Journalist Survives the Censors of 1955.” 123-30.

Coward, John M. “Creating the Ideal Indian: The Case of the Poncas.” 112-21.

Rankin, Charles E. “Savage Journalists and Civilized Indians: A Different View.” 102-111.

Volume 21, No. 4, Winter 1995

Goldstein, Robert Justin. “Andre Gill and the Struggle Against Censorship of Caricature in

France, 1867-1879.” 146-54.

Gottlieb, Agnes Hooper. “Networking in the Nineteenth Century: The Founding of the Woman’s

Press Club of New York City.” 155-62.

Murray, Michael D. “Creating a Tradition in Broadcast News: A Conversation with David

Brinkley. 164-69.

Volume 22, No. 1, Spring 1996

Cronin, Mary M. “Brother’s Keeper: The Reform Journalism of The New England Magazine.”


Nord, David Paul. “Harold (Bud) Nelson.” 37.

Zboray, Ronald J. (with Mary Saracino Zboray). “Political News and Female Readership in

Antebellum Boston and its Region.” 2-14.

Zboray, Mary Saracino (with Ronald J. Zboray). “Political News and Female Readership in

Antebellum Boston and its Region.” 2-14.

Volume 22, No. 2, Summer 1996

Bjork, Ulf Jonas. “The First International Journalism Organization Debates News Copyright,

1894-1898.” 56-63.

Fowler, Giles M. “Unsung Jazz: How Kansas City Papers Missed the Story.” 64-72.

Wars, Douglas B. “The Reader as Consumer: Curtis Publishing Company and its Audience,

1910-1930.” 46-55.

Volume 22, No. 3, Autumn 1996

Colbert, Ann. “Philanthropy in the Newsroom: Women’s Editions of Newspapers, 1894-1896.”


Greenwald, Marilyn S. “‘All Brides Are Not Beautiful’: The Rise of Charlotte Curtis at the New

York Times.” 100-109.

Merrick, Beverly. “Mary Margaret McBride: At Home in the Hudson Valley.” 110-18.

Volume 22, No. 4, Winter 1996

Bengoa, Zalbidea Bengonia. “The Phasing Out of the Franco and State Press in Spain.” 156-63.

Goldman, Aaron L. “Press Freedom in Britain During World War II.” 146-55.

Smith, Phyllis L. “Contentious Voices Amid the Order: The Opposition Press in Mexico City.”


Volume 23, No. 1, Spring 1997

Bekken, Jon. “A Paper for Those Who Toil: The Chicago Labor Press in Transition.” 24-33.

Steiner, Linda. “Autobiographies by Women Journalists: An Annotated Bibliography.” 13-15.

Steiner, Linda. “Gender at Work: Early Accounts by Women Journalists.” 2-12.

Sullivan, Christopher. “John Steinbeck, War Reporter: Fiction, Journalism, and Types of Truth.”


Volume 23, No. 2, Spring 1997

Burt, Elizabeth V. “A Bid for Legitimacy: The Women’s Press Club Movement, 1881-1900.”


DeSantis, Alan D. “A Forgotten Leader: Robert S. Abbott and the Chicago Defender from 1910

1920.” 63-71.

Henry, Susan. “Anonymous in Her Own Name: Public Relations Pioneer Doris Fleischman.” 50-


Volume 23, No. 3, Summer 1997

Blissert, Julie Harrison. “Guerilla Journalist: I.F. Stone and Tonkin.” 102-113.

Cronin-Lamonica, Mary. “Fighting for the Farmers: The Pacific Northwest’s Nonpartisan

League Newspapers.” 126-36.

Sweeney, Michael S. “The Desire for the Sensational: Coxey’s Army and the Argus-eyed

Demons of Hell.” 114-25.

Volume 23, No. 4, Winter 1997-98

Adams, Edward A. “Scripps Howard’s Implementation of Joint Agreements for Newspaper

Preservation, 1933-1939.” 159-65.

Loew, Patty. “Natives, Newspapers and ‘Fighting Bob’: Wisconsin Chippewa in the

‘Unprogressive’ Era.” 149-58.

Volume 24, No. 1, Spring 1998

Cookman, Claude. “Compelled to Witness: The Social Realism of Henri Cartier-Bresson.” 2-15.

Evensen, Bruce J. “‘Expecting a Blessing of Unusual Magnitude’: Moody, Mass Media, and

Gilded Age Revival.” 26-36.

Tankard, James W., Jr. “Samuel L. Morison and the Government Crackdown on the Leaking og

Classified Information.” 17-25.

Volume 24, No. 2, Summer 1998

Bleske, Glen (with Chris Lamb). “Democracy on the Field: The Black Press Takes on White

Baseball.” 51-59.

Lamb, Chris (with Glen Bleske). “Democracy on the Field: The Black Press Takes on White

Baseball.” 51-59.

Streitmatter, Rodger. “Transforming the Women’s Pages: Strategies that Worked.” 72-81.

Volume 24, No. 3, Autumn 1998

Brown, Michael. “The Popular Art of American Magazine Illustration, 1885-1917.” 94-103.

Copeland, David. “‘Join or Die’: America’s Newspapers in the French and Indian War.” 112-21.

Risley, Ford T. “Bombastic Yet Insightful: Georgia’s Civil War Soldier Correspondents.” 104-


Volume 24, No. 4, Winter 1998-99

Banning, Stephen A. “The Professionalization of Journalism: A Ninteteenth-Century

Beginning.” 157-63.

Cone, Stacey. “Presuming a Right to Deceive: Radio Free Europe, Radio Liberty, the CIA, and

the News Media.” 148-56.

Jolliffe, Lee (with J. Steven Smethers). “Homemaking Programs: The Recipe for Reaching

Women Listeners on the Midwest’s Local Radio.” 138-47.

Smethers, J. Steven (with Lee Jolliffe). “Homemaking Programs: The Recipe for Reaching

Women Listeners on the Midwest’s Local Radio.” 138-47.

Volume 25, No.1, Spring 1999

Baldasty, Gerald. “The Economics of Working-Class Journalism: The E.W. Scripps Newspaper

Chain, 1878-1908.” 3-12.

Cronin, Mary M. “Redefining Woman’s Sphere: New England’s Antebellum Female Textile

Operatives’ Magazines the Response to the ‘Cult True Womanhood.” 13-25.

Shulman, Stuart W. “The Progressive Era Farm Press: A Primer on a Neglected Source of Journalism History.” 26-35.

Volume 25, No. 3, Summer 1999

Edwardson, Mickie. “James Lawrence Fly v. David Sarnoff: Blitzkrieg over Television.” 42-52.

Flamiano, Dolores. “‘The Sex Side of Life’ in the News: Mary Ware Dennett’s Obscenity Case, 1929-1930.” 64-74.

Lumsden, Linda. “‘Excellent Ammunition’: Suffrage Newspaper Strategies During World War\

I.” 53-63.

Volume 25, No. 3, Autumn 1999

Blanchard, Margaret A. “The Ossification of Journalism History: A Challenge for the Twenty

First Century.” 107-112.

Spencer, David R. “Divine Intervention: God, Working People, Labour Journalism.” 90-98.

Streitmatter, Rodger. “Origins of the American Labor Press.” 99-106.

Volume 25, No. 4, Winter 1999-2000

Hoffman, Joyce. “The Journalist’s Archive: Megalomania or a Gift to the Ages?” 149-56.

Kaplan, John. “The Life Magazine Civil Rights Photography of Charles Moore.” 126-39.

Murray, Michael D. “Interpreting Heroes, Villains, and Victims: Alistair Cooke.” 140-48.

Volume 26, No. 1, Spring 2000

Mindich, David T.Z. “Understanding Frederick Douglass: Toward a New Synthesis Approach to

the Birth of Modern American Journalism.” 15-22.

Sowell, Michael. “The Myth Becomes the Mythmaker: Bat Masterson as New York Sports

Writer.” 2-15.

Watts, Liz. “Bess Furman: Front Page Girl of the 1920s.” 23-33.

Volume 26, No. 2, Summer 2000

Roka, Les. “More than a Modest Subculture: Virgil Thomson’s ‘Nearly Perfect’ Music

Criticism.” 50-60.

Jolliffe, Lee (with J. Steven Smethers). “Singing and Selling Seeds: The Live Music Era on

Rural Midwestern Radio Stations.” 61-70.

Smethers, J. Steven (with Lee Jolliffe). “Singing and Selling Seeds: The Live Music Era on

Rural Midwestern Radio Stations.” 61-70.

Volume 26, No. 3, Autumn 2000

Burt, Elizabeth. “Conflicts of Interests”: Covering Reform in the Wisconsin Press, 1910-1920.”


Goodman, Mark (with Mark Gring) “The Ideological Fight over Creation of the Federal Radio

Commission in 1927.” 117-124.

Gring, Mark (with Mark Goodman). “The Ideological Fight over Creation of the Federal Radio

Commission in 1927.” 117-124.

Thornton, Brian. “When a Newspaper was Accused of Killing a President: How Five New York

City Newspapers Reacted.” 108-116.

Volume 26, No. 4, Winter 2000-2001

Cloud, Barbara, “26 Years of Journalism History.” 141-64.

Volume 27, No. 1, Spring 2001

  • Baldasty, Gerald J. “A Conversation with Barbara Cloud.” 2-4.

  • Gower, Karla K. “Rediscovering Women in Public Relations: Women in the Public Relations Journal, 1945-72.” 14-21.

Historical studies of women in public relations and their contributions to the field have been rare. Yet, an understanding of women’s contributions is important, especially in light of their growing dominance in the profession. This article begins the process of rediscovering women in public relations by examining the Public Relations Journal for the presence of women from 1945, when the journal began, through 1972, when the Public Relations Society of America elected its first female chair. The author argues that women were initially accepted into the profession because public relations was a new field with few barriers to entry. As the profession matured, it became more male dominated despite a growing number of women.

  • Kennedy, Thomas C. “Hereditary Enemies: Home, Rule, Unionism, and the Times, 1910-1914.” 34-42.

This article considers the nature of The Times’ Irish policy during the bitter pre-war controversy over home rule, a struggle that by 1914 produced, as the newspaper noted, “one of the greatest crises in the history of the British race.” Because of The Times’ reputation for both creating and disseminating opinion among Britain’s informed, patriotic, and conservative middle classes, the paper’s role in this political and constitutional crisis was crucial. What was the basis of The Times’ anti-nationalist and apparently anti-Catholic editorial stance on Ireland? What role did it play in helping the tiny and essentially separatist Ulster Unionist Party, representing less than 5 percent of the British electorate, to become a roaring mouse that twisted the tail of the English Conservative Party and bought the United Kingdom to the brink of civil war while larger national and international issues were left unresolved?

  • ^ Stoker, Kevin. “Liberal Journalism in the Deep South: Harry M. Ayers and the ‘Bothersome’ Race Question.” 22-33.

This article examines Anniston (Alabama) Star publisher Harry Ayers and his arguments about racial issues during four eras of racial unrest in the South: the post-World War I progress era from 1917-1932, the New Deal and World War II era from 1933-45, the Brown v. Board of Education era from 1953-56, and the beginning of the Freedom Riders/Civil Rights era in the early 1960s. As publisher of the Star from 1912-63, Ayers was considered a liberal by most southerners for advocating educational, economic, legal, and electoral equality for blacks. However, his loyalty to the southern social order ultimately undermined his liberalism and led to his retrenchment on social equality and school integration. He was representative of community or “country” editors who wanted a New South that did not threaten the white hierarchy of the old South.

  • ^ Sweeney, Michael S. “Censorship Missionaries of World War II.” 4-13.

To promote compliance with its voluntary guidelines for domestic self-censorship during World War II, the Office of Censorship recruited editors and publishers from around the U.S. to act as informal liaisons between censorship headquarters and the nation’s press, particularly the thousands of weekly newspapers. The liaisons, known as “missionaries,” were highly respected and well known in their home states. This article draws on the personal archive of Madison, Wisconsin, publisher Don Anderson in the State Historical Society of Wisconsin as well as the Office of Censorship records in the National Archives to examine the reasons for the creation of the missionary group, their wartime work, and their methods of persuading editors to refrain from publishing sensitive information. It concludes that the missionaries’ calm voice of reason, coupled with appeals to patriotism and egalitarianism, strongly influenced compliance.

^ Volume 27, No. 2, Summer 2001

  • Adams, Ed. “How Corporate Ownership Facilitated a Split in the Scripps Newspaper Empire.” 56-63.

E.W. Scripps was among the early adopters of corporate ownership for newspapers. It helped him to develop a chain and provide incentives to editors and business managers at the individual newspapers by distributing stock shares among close associates and those who were involved in the start-up of papers. In most cases, Scripps held a majority of the stock, but at some papers the majority of stock was split between Scripps and close family members. This financial structure helped to create the first corporate split in a U.S. newspaper company. James Scripps, the eldest son of E.W. Scripps, took his minority shares in several west coast newspapers and joined with other minority shareholders to create a majority of stock, forming their own newspaper company. This article examines the corporate structure created by E.W. Scripps, the events that led to the split, and the subsequent consolidation of the remaining Scripps papers.

  • ^ Reel, Guy. “Richard Fox, John L. Sullivan, and the Rise of Modern American Prize Fighting.” 73-85.

During the 1880s, National Police Gazette publisher Richard Kyle Fox helped create modern boxing by conducting promotions, offering prize belts, and publicizing the exploits of boxing great John L. Sullivan. Fox used the Gazette not just to chronicle the adventures of buxom showgirls or to sensationalize the latest heinous crime; it also was a pulpit to denounce hypocrites who opposed the modern sport of boxing. Through his tenacity, and good fortune in having the deeps of a legend such as Sullivan to play up, Fox became one of the most influential sports figures of the nineteenth century; and it made him a millionaire. Sullivan was just as fortunate, becoming world famous. This article tells the story of Fox, Sullivan, and the National Police Gazette during part of Fox’s lengthy tenure as editor and publisher. The Gazette, while it is perhaps best known for its emphasis on sex and crime as a precursor to today’s tabloid journalism, also should be remembered for its unrelenting, early support of professional prize fighting.

  • Sumpter, Randall S. “News About News: John G. Speed and the First Newspaper Content Analysis.” 64-72.

This article examines the history of the first quantitative analysis of a newspaper. John Gilmer Speed, a former New York World editor, used this research method to compare the content of four New York dailies published in 1881 and in 1893. He concluded that “new journalism” had injected high levels of gossip and scandal into newspapers during the twelve-year interval. The new material adversely affected readers into two ways, he believed: It displaced useful news that readers needed to function in a democratic society, and it provided examples of poor behavior that readers might imitate. His study served as a foundation for later academic “muckrakers,” who used content analyses to critique newspapers’ interactions with other social institutions.

  • ^ Tucher, Andie. “In Search of Jenkins: Taste, Style, and Credibility in Gilded-Age Journalism.” 50-55.

In the 1860s to the 1880s, the term “Jenkins,” borrowed from a British expression for a windy and obsequious society reporter, was widely used in the U.S. as a derisive term for journalists whose prose was over-rich and whose prying was viewed as excessive. Critics of the Jenkins tribe ran the gamut from Mark Twain to the august George William Curtis, editor of Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. A study of the use of the “Jenkins” label offers firm clues for evaluating how readers and reporters engaged with their newspapers. It reveals specific points of rivalry between reporters; it reflects a general public anxiety that was sometimes misplaced or even deliberately exaggerated over the evolving conventions of reportorial work; and it suggests that readers had a clear understanding about relationships between style and topic in journalistic prose, violations of which opened the offender to criticism.

^ Volume 27, No. 3, Fall 2001

  • Anderson, William B. “Saving the National Pastime’s Image: Crisis Management During the 1919 Black Sox Scandal.” 105-111.

This article examines a previously unstudied aspect of the 1919 Black Sox scandal: how Major League Baseball executives’ desire to present the game as the national pastime, and the impact of the sporting press in helping to shape this image, influenced their crisis communications strategy, including appointing a commissioner and developing a press office. This study suggests the scandal’s impact on baseball’s image had more to do with the development of the baseball industry’s first press office than did economical factors; that is, baseball officials implemented a press office for ideological rather than functional reasons. Although organizations often suggest they institute public relations to present the industry’s voice in the marketplace of ideas, baseball industry leaders wanted to regain sportswriter approval and acquiescence in order to maintain the game’s status as the national pastime.

  • ^ Collins, Ross F. “The Business of Journalism in Provincial France During World War I.” 112-121.

This article examines the difficulties of managing large newspapers as commercial enterprises during a world war by looking at two large French dailies in the south of that country during World War I as well as archival materials in Paris. The author describes staffing, paper supply, government control, and advertising revenues throughout this period. The conclusion is that war demands required French newspaper publishers and editors to make difficult choices, ultimately affecting the size and the cost of their publications. By 1918, the final year of the war, a powerful government-sponsored consortium was dictating most of the business decisions to the country’s publishers. Wartime difficulties eventually drove many French newspapers out of business, but the large dailies examined in this article survived.

  • ^ Fosdick, Scott. “Chicago Newspaper Theater Critics of the Early Twentieth Century.” 122-128.

In the early years of the twentieth century, when live theater dominated the entertainment world and print media led public discourse, each without competition from electronic forms, the daily newspaper theater critic mediated ideas and values quite differently than today’s critics, whose main function has been reduced to that of a consumer guide. This article examines the corps of theater critics who served ten Chicago newspapers about 100 years ago. At a time when news editors were reluctant to cover new ideas and social movements, such as the push for women’s suffrage, theater critics were encountering radical new social ideas from European playwrights. Whether they approved or disapproved—and they did both, vehemently—their open debate with each other provided a level of public conversation of incalculable value in their own time, and largely missing today.

  • ^ Johansen, Peter. “‘For Better Higher and Nobler Things’: Massey’s Pioneering Employee Publication.” 94-104.

In 1885, a Toronto-based agricultural implements maker, the Massey Manufacturing Co., inaugurated the Trip Hammer, which is widely believed to be the first true employee publication in North America. The magazine lasted one year and then the company’s management and the publication’s editors jointly agreed to end it because they felt there was an “absence of evidence” that it was meeting its goals and a lack of “outward marks of appreciation” for the “considerable labour expended.” Thus, it was viewed as a failure. This article sketches the company and its founding family, and describes the publication’s contents. It argues the monthly’s birth can be linked to personal and societal factors, but its content starkly reflected the employer’s moral and social values. Finally, the article examines why the company felt the publication was a failure despite substantial evidence that it was beneficial for the workers.

  • ^ Twomey, Jane L. “May Craig: Journalist and Liberal Feminist.” 129-138.

Washington political columnist May Craig was hardly known to readers outside of Maine, where her daily column was published for more than thirty years in a variety of state papers, including the Portland Press Herald. Yet this tiny woman, who titillated audiences and terrified guests on “Meet the Press,” was an ardent feminist who accomplished many “firsts” for female reporters at a time when the women’s rights movement was all but dead. Her most important accomplishment for women came when the “May Craig Amendment,” prohibiting employment discrimination on the basis of sex, became federal law as part of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

Volume 27, No. 4, Winter 2001-2002

  • Block, Sharon. “Rape and Race in Colonial Newspapers, 1728-1776.” 146-155.

This article uses scores of colonial newspaper reports of rape to examine the creation and perpetuation of racial ideologies in the early American press. Contrary to the historiographic emphasis on the nineteenth-century “myth of the black rapist,” this research shows that colonial newspapers reflected racial differences in the ways that they reported rapes. Reports of black-on-white rapes presented the attack as a racial crime, while white-on-white rapes emphasized the class, ethnic, or community identity of the individual attacker. Further, reports might identify victims of black rapists simply as white women or girls, while reports identified victims of white rapists as young and vulnerable or as the victims of particularly heinous attacks. Together, these patterns of reporting reified the connections between race and rape.

  • ^ Daniel, Douglas K. “Ohio Newspapers and the ‘Whispering Campaign’ of the 1920 Presidential Election.” 156-164.

The 1920 campaign for president was a relatively quiet affair until a rumor about one of the candidates began to appear in print. Circulars produced by a college professor claimed that Sen. Warren G. Harding, the Republican nominee, had black ancestors, a scandalous charge in the early twentieth century. Only days before the election, the allegation began appearing in newspapers—but not all newspapers and not always in detail. This study examines how newspaper in Ohio, the home state of Harding and Democratic nominee James M. Cox (each of them newspaper publishers), responded to this major event late in the campaign. Press coverage reflected common attitudes about race and newspaper practices of the period.

  • ^ Evensen, Bruce J. “‘Saucepan Journalism’ in an Age of Indifference: Moody, Beecher and Brooklyn’s Gilded Press.” 165-177.

This article analyses how the popular press in Gilded Age America helped to create a celebrity culture in religious reporting designed to stimulate circulation at a time of economic panic. Coverage of the era’s two leading evangelists, Henry Ward Beecher and D.L. Moody, by Brooklyn’s “saucepan press” demonstrated the entertainment value of religious news in modernizing America. Just as sauce contains many ingredients designed to tickle the palate, so, too, did modern newspaper reporting. Reeling from the Panic of 1873, it needed to be part news and part entertainment if it was to find and keep an audience. Beecher’s adultery trial and Moody’s trans-Atlantic revival success had made each a star by the fall of 1875, when they filled the pages of Brooklyn’s press with tall tales designed to titillate and excite readers, who had wearied of traditional religious reporting. If Moody’s mass meetings showed that religion as a civic spectacle worked well, the Beecher story showed that religion as a civic scandal worked equally well.

  • Warner, Jessica, and Frank Ivis. “On the Vanguard of the First Drug Scare: Newspapers and Gin in London, 1736-1751.” 178-187.

This article examines how newspapers portrayed cheap distilled spirits, known as gin, and the people who drank it in eighteenth-century London. It shows that coverage did not coincide with movements in consumption; rather, coverage peeked with the passage of the Gin Act of 1736 and then declined and disappeared altogether just as consumption reached new heights in the early 1740s. Coverage then resumed in January 1751, by which time consumption was already in decline. Despite the fact that coverage and consumption did not move in tandem, there is little evidence to suggest that newspapers contributed to the making of a moral panic over gin and its supposed effects on the health, morals, and productivity of the working poor. In the 1730s, at least, newspapers were divided on the subject of gin; in the early 1750s, by contrast, the press was unanimous in its condemnation of gin, but, as in the 1730s, it generally avoided running sensational stories.

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